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Padmaja, P.G., Woodcock, C.M., and Bruce, T.J.A. 2010. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata, to sorghum volatiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 36:1346-1353.
 
Pai, K.F., Chen, C.J., Yang, J.T., and Chen, C.C. 2004. Green lacewing Ankylopteryx exquisite attracted to methyl eugenol. Plant Prot. Bull. 46:93-97.
 
Paine, T.D., Millar, J.G., Hanlon, C.C., and Hwang, J.S. 1999. Identification of semiochemicals associated with Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi. J. Chem. Ecol. 25:433-453.
 
Pajares, J.A., Álvarez, G., Ibeas, F., Gallego, D., Hall, D.R., and Farman, D.I. 2010. Identification and field activity of a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis. J. Chem. Ecol. 36:570-583.
 
Pajares, J.A., Ibeas, F., Diez, J.J., and Gallego, D. 2004. Attractive responses by Monochamus galloprovincialis (Col., Cerambycidae) to host and bark beetle semiochemicals. J. Appl. Entomol. 128:633-638.
 
Panasiuk, O. 1984. Response of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarasa decemlineata (Say), to volatile components of tansy, Tanacetum vulgare. J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1325-1333.
 
Papaj, D.R., Feeny, P., Sachdev-Gupta, K., and Rosenberry, L. 1992. D-(+)-pinitol, an oviposition stimulant for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor. J. Chem. Ecol. 18:799-815.
 
Papke, M., Riechert, S.E., and Schulz, S. 2001. An airborne female pheromone associated with male attraction and courtship in a desert spider. Anim. Behav. 61:877-886.
 
Papke, M., Schulz, S., Tichy, H., Gingl, E., and Ehn, R. 2000. Identification of a new sex pheromone from the silk dragline of the tropical wandering spider Cupiennius salei. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39:4339-4341.
 
Parashar, B.D., Gupta, G.P., Sikder, N., and Rao, K.M. 1993. Diethylphenylacetamide: a new insect repellent against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Med. Vet. Entomol. 7:259-262.
 
Pardo, P.R., and Nates, P.G. 1994. Increasing flower visits by Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in crops by the use of synthetic Nasonov pheromone. Rev. Col. Entomol. 20:187-192.
 
Park, J.H., Han, K.S., Mori, K., and Boo, K.S. 2002. Right stereoisomers for sex pheromone components of the apple leafminer, Lyonetia prunifoliella, in Korea. J. Chem. Ecol. 28:2515-2525.
 
Park, K.C., and Cork, A. 1999. Electrophysiological responses of antennal receptor neurons in female Australian sheep blowflies, Lucilia cuprina, to host odours. J. Insect Physiol. 45:85-91.
 
Park, K.C., Cork, A., and Boo, K.S. 1996. Intrapopulational changes in sex pheromone composition during scotophase in oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 22:1201-1210.
 
Park, K.C., Cork, A., Boo, K.S., and Hall, D.R. 1994. Biological activity of female sex pheromone of the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): electroantennography, wind tunnel observation and field trapping. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 33:26-32.
 
Park, K.C., Elias, D., Donato, B., and Hardie, J. 2000. Electroantennogram and behavioural responses of different forms of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, to sex pheromone and a plant volatile. J. Insect Physiol. 46:597-604.
 
Park, R.J., and Sutherland, M.D. 1961. Volatile constituents of the bronze orange bug, Rhoecocoris sulciventris. Aust. J. Chem. 15:172-174.
 
Park, S.C., and Foster, S.P. 1998. Comparative sex pheromone-associated behavior of Planotortrix notophaea and P. octo (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Asia Pacific Entomol. 1:91-98.
 
Park, S.C., Wi, A.J., and Kim, H.S. 1994. Response of Matsucoccus thunbergianae males to synthetic sex pheromone and its utilization for monitoring the spread to infestation. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:2185-2196.
 
Pasek, J.E., and Dix, M.E. 1989. Life history of a ponderosa pine coneworm, Dioryctria auranticella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82:879-885.
 
Pasqualini, E., Antropoli, A., Faccioli, B. 1992. Attractant performance of a synthetic sex pheromone for Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lep., Cossidae). Boll. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Bologna. 46:101-108.
 
Pasqualini, E., Bortolotti, A., Maini, S., Baronio, P., and Campadelli, G. 1982. Cossus cossus L. (Lep., Cossidae) male catches in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) with synthetic pheromone. Colloq. l'INRA Versailles. 7:399-401.
 
Pasqualini, E., Faccioli, G., Antropoli, A., Molfese, M. 1993. Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lep., Cossidae): attractivity of some pheromone blends and comparison with natural enemies. Boll. Ist. Entomol. Univ. Bologna. 47:169-177.
 
Pasqualini, E., Natale, D., Witzgall, P., and El-Sayed, A. 1999. Zeuzera pyrina and Cossus cossus (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) control by pheromones: four years advances in Italy. Bull. OILB-SROP. 22:115-124.
 
Pasteels, J.M., Daloze, D., and Boeve, J.L. 1989. Aldehydic contact poisons and alarm pheromone of the ant Crematogaster scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae). Enzyme-mediated production from acetate precursors. J. Chem. Ecol. 15:1501-1511.
 
Pasteels, J.M., Verhaeghe, J.C., Braekman, J.C., Daloze, D., and Tursch, B. 1980. Caste-dependent pheromones in the head of the ant Tetramorium caespitum. J. Chem. Ecol. 6:467-472.
 
Pasteels, J.M., Verhaeghe, J.C., Ottinger, R., Braekman, J.C., and Daloze, D. 1981. Absolute configuration of (3R,4S)-4-methyl-3-hexanol - a pheromone from the head of the ant Tetramorium impurum Foerster. Insect Biochem. 11:675-678.
 
Patricio E.F.L.R.A., Cruz-López, L., Maile, R., and Morgan, E.D. 2003. Secretions of stingless bees: the dufour glands of some Frieseomelitta species (Apidae, Meliponinae). Apidologie. 34:359-365.
 
Patrick, D.R. 1974. Boll weevil sex-lure traps attract Dectes texanus texanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 9:17.
 
Pattenden, G., and Staddon, B.W. 1968. Secretion from the metathoracic glands of the waterbug Notonecta glauca L. (Heteroptera; Notonectidae). Experientia. 24:1092-1093.
 
Pavan, M. 1955a. Studi sui Formicidae. I. Contributo all conoscenza degli organi gastrali nei Dolichoderinae. Nature. (Milano). 46:135-145.
 
Pavan, M. 1968. Defensive Secretions of Arthropoda. Final Technical Report. Ist. Entomol. Agr. Univ. Pavia. 1-235.
 
Pavan, M., 1958. Significato chimico e biologico di alcuni veleni di insetti. Tip. Artig., Pavia: 1-75.
 
Pavan, M., and Ronchetti, G. 1955b. Studi sulla morfoligia esterna e anatomia interna dell' operaia di Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr e ricerche chimiche e biologiche sulla iridomermecina. Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. 94:379-477.
 
Pawar, C.S., Srivastava, C.P., and Reed, W. 1983. Phenylacetaldehyde: an attractant for Heliothis armigera. Int. Chick. News. 8:27-28.
 
Payne, T.L. 1970. Electrophysiological investigations on response to pheromones in bark beetles. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 24:275-282.
 
Payne, T.L., Blum, M.S., and Duffield, R.M. 1975. Chemoreceptor responses of all castes of a carpenter ant to male-derived pheromones. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 68:385-386.
 
Payne, T.L., Richerson, J.V., Dickens, J.C., West, J.R., Mori, K., Berisford, C.W., Hedden, R.L., Vite, J.P., and Blum, M.S. 1982. Southern pine beetle: olfactory receptor and behavior discrimination of enantiomers of the attractant pheromone frontalin. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:873-881.
 
Peacock, L., Lewis, M., and Powers, S. 2001. Volatile compounds from Salix spp. varieties differing in susceptibility to three willow beetle species. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:1943-1951.
 
Pearce, G.T., Gore, W.E., Silverstein, R.M., Peacock, J.W., Cuthbert, R.A., Lanier, G.N., and Simeone, J.B. 1975. Chemical attractants for the smaller European elm bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 1:115-124.
 
Pearson, D.L., Blum, M.S., Jones, T.H., Fales, H.M., Gonda, E., and White, B.R. 1988. Am. Naturalist. 132:404-416.
 
Pedder, D.J., Fales, H.M., Jaouni, T., Blum, M., MacConnell, J., and Crewe, R.M. 1976. Constituents of the venom of a south african fire ant (Solenopsis punctaticeps) 2,5-dialkylpyrrolidines and -pyrrolines, identification and synthesis. Tetrahedron. 32:2275-2279.
 
Pedersen, H.Ć., Watthana, S., Kocyan, A., and Srimuang, K.-O. 2013. Pollination biology of Luisia curtisii (Orchidaceae): indications of a deceptive system operated by beetles. Plant Sys. Evol. 299:177-185.
 
Pekar, S. 2002. Differential effects of formaldehyde concentration and detergent on the catching efficiency of surface active arthropods by pitfall traps. Pedobiologia. 46:539-547.
 
Peltotalo, P., and Tuovinen, T. 1986. Specificity of pheromone preparates for lepidopterous pests. Ann. Agric. Fenn. 25:139-146.
 
Pena, A., Arn, H., Buser, H.R., Rauscher, S., Bigler, F., Brunetti, R., Maini, S., and Tóth, M. 1988a. Sex pheromone of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis: polymorphism in various laboratory and field strains. J. Chem. Ecol. 14:1359-1366.
 
Pena, A., Lozano, C., Sanchez-Raya, A.J., and Campos, M. 1998b. Ethylene release under field conditions for the management of the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides. J. Agric. Entomol. 15:23-32.
 
Pencheva, A.J., Subchev, M.A., and Voerman, S. 1998. Seasonal flight of Epiblema tedella Cl. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) - investigations by pheromone traps in Bulgaria. Acta Zool. Bulg. 50:93-97.
 
Peng, C.-L., Gu, P., Li, J., Chen, Q.-Y., Feng, C.-H., Luo, H.-H., and Du, Y.-J. 2012. Identification and field bioassay of the sex pheromone of Trichophysetis cretacea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 105:1566-1572.
 
Penman, D.R., Osborne, G.O., Worner, S.P., Chapman, R.B., and McLaren, G.F. 1982. Ethyl nicotinate: a chemical attractant for Thrips obscuratus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in stonefruit in New Zealand. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:1299-1303.
 
Pennacchio, F., Roversi, P.F., Francardi, V., and Gatti, E. 2003. Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) a bark beetle new to Europe (Coleoptera Scolytidae). Redia. 86:77-80.
 
Peppuy, A., Robert, A., Sémon, E., Bonnard, O., Son, N.T., and Bordereau, C. 2001b. Species specificity of trail pheromones of fungus-growing termites from northern Vietnam. Insectes Soc. 48:245-250.
 
Peppuy, A., Robert, A., Sémon, E., Ginies, C., Lettere, M., Bonnard, O., and Bordereau, C. 2001a. (Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol, a novel termite trail pheromone identified after solid phase microextraction from Macrotermes annandalei. J. Insect Physiol. 47:445-453.
 
Pereira, P. 1998. The use of pheromone traps for monitoring Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and detection of parasitoids in flour mills. Bull. OILB-SROP. 21:111-117.
 
Perez, A.L., Campos, Y., Chinchilla, C.M., Oehlschlager, A.C., Gries, G., Gries, R., Giblin Davis, R.M., Castrillo, G., Pena, J.E., Duncan, R.E., Gonzalez, L.M., Pierce, H.D., Jr., McDonald, R., and Andrade, R. 1997. Aggregation pheromones and host kairomones of West Indian sugarcane weevil, Metamasius hemipterus sericeus. J. Chem. Ecol. 23:869-888.
 
Perez, A.L., Gries, G., Gries, R., Giblin Davis, R.M., and Oehlschlager, A.C. 1994. Pheromone chirality of African palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F.) and palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 20:2653-2671.
 
Perisse, A.C.M., and Salles, C.A. 1970. Estudo quimico de diplopoda Brasileiros. III. Collostreptus fulvus (Schubart, 1960). Atas Soc. BioI. Rio de Janeiro. 13:95-99.
 
Perkins, M.V., Fletcher, M.T., Kitching, W., Drew, R.A.I., and Moore, C.J. 1990. Chemical studies of rectal gland secretions of some species of Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 16:2475-2487.
 
Perkins, M.V., Kitching, W., Drew, R.A.I., Moore, C.J., and König, W.A. 1990. Chemistry of fruit flies: composition of the male rectal gland secretions of some species of South-East Asian Dacinae. Re-examination of Dacus cucurbitae (melon fly). J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1:1111-1117.
 
Permana, A.D., Samoedi, D., Zagatti, P., and Malosse, C. 1995. Identification of pheromone components of sugar cane moth top borer, Tryporiza nivella F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bull. Pusat Pen. 141:80-85.
 
Perrin, T.E., Rasmussen, L.E.L., Gunawardena, R., and Rasmussen, R.A. 1996. A method for collection, long-term storage, and bioassay of labile volatile chemosignals. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:207-221.
 
Persoons, C.J., Minks, A.K., Voerman, S., Roelofs, W.L., and Ritter, F.J. 1974. Sex pheromones of the moth, Archips podana: isolation, identification and field evaluation of two synergistic geometrical isomers. J. Insect. Physiol. 20:1181-1188.
 
Persoons, C.J., Ritter, F.J., and Nooyen, W.J. 1977. Sex pheromone of the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Evidence for a two-component system. J. Chem. Ecol. 3:717-722.
 
Persoons, C.J., Van der Kraan, C., Nooijen, W.J., Ritter, F.J., Voerman, S., and Baker, T.C. 1981. Sex pheromone of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua: isolation, identification and preliminary field evaluation. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 30:98-99.
 
Persoons, C.J., Veeranna, G., Vos, J.D., and Nagasundara, K.N. 1993a. The role of semiochemicals in the host finding behaviour of parasitoids, with special reference to the uzi fly, Exorista sorbillans (Tachinidae). Proc. Nat. Sem. 167-189.
 
Persoons, C.J., Verwiel, P.E.J., Ritter, F.J., and Nooyen, W.J. 1979. Studies on sex pheromone of American cockroach, with emphasis on structure elucidation of periplanone-A. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:439-451.
 
Persoons, C.J., Verwiel, P.E.J., Ritter, F.J., Talman, E., Nooijen, P.J.F., and Nooijen, W.J. 1976c. Sex pheromones of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: a tentative structure. Tetrahedron Lett. 24:2055-2058.
 
Persoons, C.J., Verwiel, P.E.J., Talman, E., and Ritter, F.J. 1979. Sex pheromone of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Isolation and structure elucidation of periplanone-B. J. Chem. Ecol. 5:221-236.
 
Persoons, C.J., Voerman, S., van der Kraan, C., and Booij, C.J.H. 1984. Sex pheromone of the leafroller moth Syndemis musculana (Tortricidae): preliminary identification and field evaluation. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35:101-103.
 
Persoons, C.J., Voerman, S., Verwiel, P.E.J., Nooijen, P.J.F., Nooijen, W.J., Ritter, F.J., and Minks, A.K. 1976a. Sex pheromone of the potato tuberworm moth, Phthorimaea operculella: isolation and identification. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent. 41:945-948.
 
Persoons, C.J., Voerman, S., Verwiel, P.E.J., Ritter, F.J., Nooyenand, W.J., and Minks, A.K. 1976b. Sex pheromone of the potato tuberworm moth, Phthorimaea operculella: isolation, identification and field evaluation. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 20:289-300.
 
Persoons, C.J., Vos, J.D., Yadav, J.S., Prasad, A.R., Sighomony, S., Jyothi, K.N., and Prasuna, A.L. 1993b. Indo-Dutch cooperation on pheromones of Indian agricultural pest insects: sex pheromone components of Diacrisia obliqua (Arctiidae), Achaea janata (Noctuidae) and Amsacta albistriga (Arctiidae). Bull. OILB-SROP. 16:136-140.
 
Perttunen, V. 1957. Reactions of two bark beetle species, Hylugops palliatus Gyll. and Hylastes ater Payk. (Col., Scolytidae) to the terpene alpha-pinene. Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 23:101-110.
 
Peschke, K. 1983. Defensive and pheromonal secretion of the tergal glad of Aleochara curtula II. Release and inhibition of male copulatory behavior. J. Chem. Ecol. 9:13-31.
 
Peschke, K., and Eisner, T. 1987. Defensive secretion of the tenebrionid beetle, Blaps mucronata: physical and chemical determinants of effectiveness. J. Comp. Physiol. 161:377-388.
 
Peschke, K., and Metzler, M. 1982. Defensive and pheromonal secretion of the tergal gland of Aleochara curtula. I. The chemical composition. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:773-783.
 
Peschke, K., and Metzler, M. 1986. Cuticular hydrocarbons and female sex pheromones of the rove beetle, Aleochara curtula (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Insect Biochem. 17:167-178.
 
Peschke, K., Friedrich, P., Kaiser, U., Franke, S., and Francke, W. 1999. Isopropyl (Z9)-hexadecenoate as a male attractant pheromone from the sternal gland of the rove beetle Aleochara curtula (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Chemoecology. 9:47-54.
 
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Peterson, M.A., Dobler, S., Larson, E.L., Juárez, D., Schlarbaum, T., Monsen, K.J., and Francke, W. 2007. Profiles of cuticular hydrocarbons mediate male mate choice and sexual isolation between hybridising Chrysochus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Chemoecology. 17:87-96.
 
Petrice, T.R., Haack, R.A., and Poland, T.M. 2005. Evaluation of three trap types and five lures for monitoring Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and other local scolytids in New York. Great Lakes Entomol. 37:1-9.
 
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Phillips, J.H.H. 1973. Monitoring for oriental fruit moth with synthetic sex pheromone. Environ. Entomol. 2:1039-1042.
 
Phillips, J.K., Chong, J.M., Andersen, J.F., and Burkholder, W.E. 1989. Determination of the enantiomeric composition of (R*,S*)-1-ethylpropyl 2-methyl-3-hydroxypentanoate, the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Sitophilus granarius. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 51:149-153.
 
Phillips, J.K., Miller, S.P.F., Andersen, J.F., Fales, H.M., and Burkholder, W.E. 1987. The chemical identification of the granary weevil aggregation pheromone. Tetrahedron Lett. 28:6145-6146.
 
Phillips, J.K., Walgenbach, C.A., Klein, J.A., Burkholder, W.E., Schmuff, N.R., and Fales, H.M. 1985. (R*,S*)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone: male-produced aggregation pheromone of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and S. zeamais Motsch. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1263-1274.
 
Phillips, T.W. 1990a. Responses of Hylastes salebrosus to turpentine, ethanol, and pheromones of Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Fla. Entomol. 73:286-292.
 
Phillips, T.W. 1990b. Attraction of Hylobius pales (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to pheromones of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Can. Entomol. 122:423-427.
 
Phillips, T.W., Jiang, X.-L., Burkholder, W.E., Phillips, J.K., and Tran, H.Q. 1993. Behavioral responses to food volatiles by two species of stored-product Coleoptera, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 19:723-734.
 
Phillips, T.W., Nation, J.L., Wilkinson, R.C., and Foltz, J.L. 1989. Secondary attraction and field activity of beetle-produced volatiles in Dendroctonus terebrans. J. Chem. Ecol. 15:1513-1533.
 
Phillips, T.W., Parajulee, M.N., and Weaver, D.K. 1995. Toxicity of terpenes secreted by the predator Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). J. Stored Prod. Res. 31:131-138.
 
Phillips, T.W., Phillips, J.K., Webster, F.X., Tang, R., and Burkholder, W.E. 1996. Identification of sex pheromones from cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related studies with C. analis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 22:2233-2249.
 
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Citation: El-Sayed AM 2014. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
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