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Kaae, R.S., Shorey, H.H., McFarland, S.U., and Gaston, L.K. 1973. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXXVII. Role of sex pheromones and other factors in reproductive isolation among ten species of Noctuidae. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66:444-448.
 
Kaae, R.S., Shorey, H.H., McLaughlin, J.R., Mitchell, E.R., Beroza, M., and Bierl, B.A. 1975. Effect of E-Z concentration of 7-dodecenyl acetate (sex pheromone isomers) on captures of four noctuid species in pheromone traps (Trichoplusia ni, Trichoplusia oxygramma, Pseudoplusia includens, Argyrogramma verruca). J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 10:338-341.
 
Kaethler, F., Pree, D.J., and Bown, A.W. 1982. HCN: a feeding deterrent in peach to the oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 75:568-573.
 
Kaib, M., and Dittebrand, H. 1990. The poison gland of the ant Myrmicaria eumenoides and its role in recruitment communication. Chemoecology. 1:3-11.
 
Kaib, M., Jmhasly, P., Wilfert, L., Durka, W., Franke, S., Francke, W., Leuthold, R.H., and Brandl, R. 2004. Cuticular hydrocarbons and aggression in the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:365-385.
 
Kainoh, Y., Nemoto, T., Shimizu, K., Tatsuki, S., Kusano, T., and Kuwahara, Y. 1991. Mating behavior of Ascogaster reticulatus Watanabe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an egg-larval parasitoid of the smaller tea tortrix, Adoxophyes sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) III. Identification of a sex pheromone. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 26:543-549.
 
Kaiser, E., and Michl, H. 1958. Die biochemie der tierischen gifte. Franz Deuticke, Wien. 1-258.
 
Kaissling, K.E., Kasang, G., Bestmann, H.J., Stransky, W., and Vostrowsky O. 1978. A new pheromone of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori. Sensory pathway and behavioral effect. Naturwissenschaften. 65:382-384.
 
Kakizaki, M. 2003b. Attractions of some noctuids to the sex pheromone components of the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). 54:142-144.
 
Kakizaki, M., and Sugie, H. 2003a. Sex pheromone of the flax budworm, Heliothis maritima adaucta Butler (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 38:73-78.
 
Kakizaki, M., and Sugie, H. J. 2001. Identification of female sex pheromone of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:2447-2458.
 
Kakizaki, M., Sugie, H., Fukumoto, T., and Ino, M. 2000. Lure using synthetic sex pheromone, (Z)-7,15-Hexadecadien-4-olide, of yellowish elongate chafer, Heptophylla picea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 44:44-46.
 
Kakizaki, M., Sugie, H., Honma, K., Fukumoto, T., Kawasaki, K., Noguchi, H., Ohtaishi, M., Suzuki, H. 1998. Identification of a sex pheromone component of the yellowish elongate chafer, Heptophylla picea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 33:5-10.
 
Kalin, M., and Barrett, F.M. 1975. Observations on the anatomy, histology, release site, and function of brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 68:126-134.
 
Kalinova, B., Do Nascimento, R.R., Hoskovec, M., Mendonca, A.L., Silva., E.L., De Freitas, M.R.T., Cabral-Jr, C.R., Silva, C.E., Sant’Ana, A.E.G., and Svatos., A. 2012. Identification of two components of the female sex pheromone of the sugarcane-borer Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 136:203-211.
 
Kalinova, B., Hoskovec, M., Liblikas, I., Unelius, C.R., and Hansson, B.S. 2001. Detection of sex pheromone components in Manduca sexta (L.). Chem. Senses. 26:1175-1186.
 
Kalinova, B., Jiros, P., Zdarek, J., Wen, X., and Hoskovec, M. 2006. GC×GC/TOF MS technique - a new tool in identification of insect pheromones: analysis of the persimmon bark borer sex pheromone gland. Talanta. 69:542-547.
 
Kalinova, B., Minaif, A., Kotera, L. 1994. Sex pheromone characterisation and field trapping of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in South Moravia and Slovakia. Eur. J. Entomol. 91:197-203.
 
Kalinova, B., Stransky, K., Ctvrtecka, R., Harmatha, J., and Zdarek, J. 1996. Host plant odour affects host attraction and cultivar preference in the apple blossom weevil. ISCE Prague. 94.
 
Kalinova, B., Svatos, A., Kindl, J., Hovorka, O., Hrdy, I., Kuldova, J., and Hoskovec, M. 2003. Sex pheromone of horse-chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella and its use in a pheromone-based monitoring system. J. Chem. Ecol. 29:387-404.
 
Kalinova. B., Kindl., J., Hovorka, O., Hoskovec, M., and Svatos., A. 2005. (11Z)-hexadec-11-enal enhances the attractiveness of Diatraea saccaralis main pheromone component in wind tunnel experiments. J. Appl. Entomol. 129:70-74.
 
Kallies, A. 2001. New records and a revised checklist of the Australian clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Aust. J. Entomol. 40:342-348.
 
Kalo, P., and Nederstrom, A. 1986. Female-specific compounds in the ovaries of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 52:95-101.
 
Kamata, N., Dahelmi, Erniwati, Nakamura, K., and Schaefer, P.W. 2001. Three tropical Lymantria spp. attracted by (+)-disparlure, the synthetic sex pheromone of the gypsy moth: moth abundance, seasonality, and trap lure effectiveness. Tropics. 10:473-480.
 
Kamata, N., Esaki, K., Mori, K., Takemoto, H., Mitsunaga, T., and Honda, H. 2008. Field trap test for bioassay of synthetic (1S,4R)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ol as an aggregation pheromone of Platypus quercivorus (Coleoptera: Platipodidae). J. Forest Res. 13:122-126.
 
Kamm, J.A., and Buttery, R.G. 1983a. Response of the alfalfa seed chalcid, Bruchophagus roddi, to alfalfa volatiles. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 33:129-134.
 
Kamm, J.A., and Buttery, R.G. 1984. Root volatile components of red clover: identification and bioassay with the clover root borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environ. Entomol. 13:1427-1430.
 
Kamm, J.A., and Buttery, R.G. 1986. Ovipositional behaviour of the alfalfa seed chalcid (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) in response to volatile components of alfalfa. Environ. Entomol. 15:388-391.
 
Kamm, J.A., and McDonough, L.M. 1979a. Sex attractant for a plume moth, Oidaematophorus monodactylus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae). Pan-Pacific Entomol. 55:284-286.
 
Kamm, J.A., and McDonough, L.M. 1979b. Field tests with the sex pheromone of the cranberry girdler. Environ. Entomol. 8:773-775.
 
Kamm, J.A., and McDonough, L.M. 1980. Synergism of the sex pheromone of the granberry girdler. Environ. Entomol. 9:795-797.
 
Kamm, J.A., and McDonough, L.M. 1985. Sex attractant for Diarsia pseudorosaria, a defoliator of ryegrass (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pan-Pacific Entomol. 61:299-302.
 
Kamm, J.A., Buttery, R.G., and Robinson, W.H. 1987. An attractant for mushroom flies (Diptera: Phoridae). J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 95:19-22.
 
Kamm, J.A., Davis, H.G., and McDonough, L.M. 1983b. Attractants for several genera and species of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Col. Bull. 37:16-18.
 
Kamm, J.A., McDonough, L.M., and Rowe, K.E. 1989. Effect of dosage and ratio of sex pheromone components on behavior of Chrysoteuchia topiaria (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 18:368-372.
 
Kamm, J.A., McDonough, L.M., and Smithhisler, C.L. 1982. Sex attractant for Protagrotis obscura, a pest of grass grown for seed. Environ. Entomol. 11:118-120.
 
Kanehisa, K, and Kawazu, K. 1985. Differences in neutral components of the defensive secretion in formic-acid-secreting carabid beetles. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 20:299-304.
 
Kanehisa, K., and Murase, M. 1977. Comparative study of the pygidial defensive systems of carabid beetles. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 12:225-235.
 
Kang, S.-K., and Seol, K.-Y. 1995. Sex pheromone of the perilla leaf pyralid moth: isolation and identification. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 16:688-689.
 
Kang, S.-K., Moon, B.-H., Lee, J.-O., and Goh, H.-G. 1985. A Convergent synthesis of (Z)-13-octadecen-1-yl acetate, the pheromone mimic of the rice leaf folder moth and its biological activity test. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 6:228-230.
 
Kangas, E., Oksanen, H., and Perttunen, V. 1970b. Responses of Blastophagus piniperda L. (Col., Scolytidae) to trans-verbenol, cis-verbenol, and verbenone, known to be population pheromones of some American bark beetles. Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 36:75-83.
 
Kangas, E., Perttunen, V., and Oksanen, H. 1970a. Responses of Blastophagus minor Hart. (Col., Scolytidae) to the pine phloem fraction known to be attractant to Blastophagus piniperda L. Entomol. Fenn. 2:120-122.
 
Kanmiya, K. 1987. Organic compounds as attractants for the seaweed fly, Coelopa (Fucomyia) frigida (Fabricius) (Diptera: Coelopidae). Jap. J. Sanit. Zool. 38:179-186.
 
Kanno, H., Kuenen, L.P.S., Klingler, K.A., Millar, J.G., and Cardé, R.T. 2010. Attractiveness of a four-component pheromone blend to male navel orangeworm moths. J. Chem. Ecol. 36:584-591.
 
Karalius, V., and Buda, V. 2006. Sex attractants for clearwing moths Synanthedon mesiaeformis (Herrich-Schaffer) and S. flaviventris (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae). Acta Zool. Lit. 16:198-203.
 
Karalius, V., Mozuraitis, R., Buda, V., Libikas, I., and Borg-Karlson, A.-K. 2005. Sex attractants for six moth species of the families Brachodidae, Choreutidae and Tineidae from Kazakhstan and Lithuania. Z. Naturforsch. C. 60:625-631.
 
Karalius, V., Mozûraitis, R., Miatleuski, J., Bûda, V., and Ivinskis, P. 2001. Sex attractants for six clearwing and tineid species (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae and Tineidae) from Kazakhstan and Lithuania. Z. Naturforsch. C. 56:1120-1125.
 
Karandinos, M.G., Tumlinson, J.H., and Eichlin, T.D. 1977. Field evidence of synergism and inhibition in the Sesiidae sex pheromone system. J. Chem. Ecol. 3:57-64.
 
Karlson, P., Lüscher, M., and Hummel, H. 1968. Extraktion und biologische biologische auswertung des spurpheromons der termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. J. Insect Physiol. 14:1763-1771.
 
Kasang, G., and Schneider, D. 1978b. The silkworm moth Bombyx mori. Presence of the (E,E)-stereoisomer of bombykol in the female pheromone gland. Naturwissenschaften. 65:337-338.
 
Kasang, G., Kaissling, K.E., Vostrowsky, O., and Bestmann, H.J. 1978a. Bombykal, a second pheromone component of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori L. Z. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 17:60.
 
Katerinopoulos, H.E., Pagona, G., Afratis, A., Stratigakis, N., and Roditakis, N. 2005. Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:111-122.
 
Katovich, S.A., Swedenborg, P.D., Giblin, M., and Underhill, E.W. 1989. Evidence for (E,Z)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate as the major component of the sex pheromone of the eastern pine seedworm, Cydia toreuta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 15:581-590.
 
Katsoyannos, B.I., and Guerin, P.M. 1984. Hexanol: a potent attractant for the black fig fly, Silba adipata. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35:71-74.
 
Katsoyannos, B.I., and Papadopoulos, N.T. 2004. Evaluation of synthetic female attractants against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sticky coated spheres and McPhail type traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:21-26.
 
Katzav-Gozansky, T., Soroker, V., and Abraham Hefetz, A. 2002. Honeybees dufour’s gland – idiosyncrasy of a new queen signal. Apidologie. 33:525-537. a
 
Katzav-Gozansky, T., Soroker, V., Ionescu, A., Robinson, G.E., and Abraham Hefetz, A. 2001. Task-related chemical analysis of labial gland volatile secretion in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica). J. Chem. Ecol. 27:919-926. a
 
Kavallieratos, N.G., Athanassiou, C.G., Balotis, G.N., Tatsi, G.T., and Mazomenos, B.E. 2005. Factors affecting male Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) captures in pheromone-baited traps in olive orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:1499-1505.
 
Kawahara, A.Y., Jones, M., Jia, Q., LaPointe, S.L., and Stansly, P.A. 2013. A synthetic pheromone for Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) attracts multiple leafminer species. Fla. Entomol. 96:1213-1216.
 
Kawano, Y., Mitchell, W.C., and Matsumoto, H. 1968. Identification of the male oriental fruit fly attractant in the golden shower blossom. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:986-988.
 
Kawashita, T., Rajapakse, G.B.J.P., and Tsuruta, K. 2004. Population surveys of Bactrocera fruit flies by lure trap in Sri Lanka. Res. Bull. Plant Prot. 40:83-87.
 
Kawazu, K., Adati, T., Yosiyasu, Y., Sumiartha, K., Susila, W., Sudiarta, P., Purwanto, H., and Tatsuki, S. 2009. Sex pheromone components of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in Indonesia. J. Asia Pacific Entomol. 12:97-99.
 
Kawazu, K., Hasegawa, J., Honda, H., Ishikawa, Y., Wakamura, S., Sugie, H., Kamiwada, H., Kamimuro, T., Yoshiyasu, Y., and Tatsuki, S. 2000. Geographical variation in female sex pheromones of the rice leaffolder moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis: identification of pheromone components in Japan. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 96:103-109.
 
Kawazu, K., Honda, H., Nakamura, S., and Adati, T. 2007. Identification of sex pheromone components of the box tree pyralid, Glyphodes perspectalis. J. Chem. Ecol. 33:1978-1985.
 
Kawazu, K., Nagata, K., Zhang, Z., Sugie, H., and Tatsuki, S. 2002. Comparison of attractiveness in Japan and China of three synthetic pheromone blends based on geographic variations in the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 92:295-299.
 
Kawazu, K., Setokuchi, O., Kohno, K., Takahashi, K., Yoshiyasu, Y., and Tatsuki, S. 2001. Sex pheromone of the rice leaffolder moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Synthetic Indian and Philippine blends are not attractive to male C. medinalis, but are attractive to C. pilosa in the South-Western islands in Japan. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 36:471-474.
 
Keaster, A.J., Grundler, J.A., Craig, W.S., and Jackson, M.A. 1996. Noctuid moths and other insects captured in wing-style traps baited with black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone on offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, 1988-1991. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 69:17-25.
 
Keathley, C.P., Stelinski, L.L., and LaPointe, S.L. 2013. Attraction of a native Florida leafminer, Phyllocnistis insignis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), to pheromone of an invasive citrus leafminer, P. citrella: evidence for mating disruption of a native non-target species. Fla. Entomol. 96:877-886.
 
Keegans, S.J., Billen, J., Morgan, E.D., and Gökcen, O.A. 1993. Volatile glandular secretions of three species of new world army ants, Eciton burchelli, Labidus coecus, and Labidus praedator. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:2705-2719.
 
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Kehat, M., and Dunkelblum, E. 1990. Behavioral responses of male Heliothis armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths in a flight tunnel to combinations of components identified from female sex pheromone glands. J. Insect Behavior. 3:75-83.
 
Kehat, M., Eitam, A., Blumberg, D., Dunkelblum, E., Anshelevich, L., and Gordon, D. 1992. Sex pheromone traps for detecting and monitoring the raisin moth, Cadra figulilella, in date palm plantations. Phytoparasitica. 20:99-106.
 
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Kendra, P.E., Montgomery, W.S., Mateo, D.M., Puche, H., Epsky, N.D., and Heath, R.R. 2005. Effect of age on EAG response and attraction of female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Environ. Entomol. 34:584-590.
 
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Khan, M., and Shahjahan, R.M. 1998. Evaluation of eucalyptus leaf extracts as repellent for adult Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Col.: Curculionidae) and attractant for Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Col.: Bruchidae). Bangl. J. Entomol. 8:81-88.
 
Khan, M.A., Jones, I., Loza-Reyes, E., Cameron, M.M., Pickett, J.A., and Birkett, M.A. 2012. Interference in foraging behaviour of European and American house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) by catmint, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 57:65-74.
 
Khannoon, E.R., Flachsbarth, B., El-Gendy, A., Mazik, K., Hardege, J.D., and Schulz, S. 2011. New compounds, sexual differences, and age-related variations in the femoral gland secretions of the lacertid lizard Acanthodactylus boskianus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39:95-101.
 
Khannoon, E.R.R. 2012. Secretions of pre-anal glands of house-dwelling geckos (Family: Gekkonidae) contain monoglycerides and 1,3-alkanediol. A comparative chemical ecology study. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 44:341-346.
 
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Khrimian, A., Lance, D.R., Schwarz, M., Leonhardt, B.A., and Mastro, V.C. 2008a. Sex pheromone of browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.): synthesis and field deployment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:2452-2456.
 
Khrimian, A., Shearer, P.W., Zhang, A., Hamilton, G.C., and Aldrich, J.R. 2008b. Field trapping of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, with geometric isomers of methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:197-203.
 
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Kido, M.H., Asquith, A., and Vargas, R.I. 1996. Nontarget insect attraction to methyl eugenol traps used in male annihilation of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Riparian Hawaiian stream habitat. Environ. Entomol. 25:1279-1289.
 
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Citation: El-Sayed AM 2014. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
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