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Haak, U., Hölldobler, B., Bestmann, H.J., and Kern, F. 1996. Species-specificity in trail pheromones and dufour's gland contents of Camponotus atriceps and C. floridanus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Chemoecology. 7:85-93.
 
Haberer, W., Schmitt, T., Peschke, K., Schreier, P., and Müller, J.K. 2008. Ethyl 4-methyl heptanoate: a male-produced pheromone of Nicrophorus vespilloides. J. Chem. Ecol. 34:94-98.
 
Hadley, N.F., Blomquist, G.J., and Lanham, U.N. 1981. Cuticular hydrocarbons of four species of Colorado Hymenoptera. Insect Biochem. 11:173-177.
 
Haga, K., Suzuki, T., Kodama, S., and Kuwahara, Y. 1989. Secretion of thrips. III. Secretion of acid-emitting thrips, Hoplothrips japonicus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 24:242-244.
 
Haga, K., Suzuki, T., Kodama, S., and Kuwahara, Y. 1990. Secretion of thrips VI. Identification of beta-myrcene from Thlibothrips isunoki (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 25:138-139.
 
Hagan, D.V., and Brady, U.E. 1981. Absence of detectable 2-phenylethanol in Trichoplusia ni, a reported pheromone of males. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 16:192-196.
 
Hagey, L., and MacDonald, E. 2003. Chemical cues identify gender and individuality in Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). J. Chem. Ecol. 29:1479-1488.
 
Hai, T.V., Vang, L.V., Son, P.K., Inomata, S., and Ando, T. 2002. Sex attractants for moths of Vietnam: field attraction by synthetic lures baited with known lepidopteran pheromones. J. Chem. Ecol. 28:1473-1481.
 
Halfhill, J.E., and McDonough, L.M. 1985. Heliothis Zea (Boddie): Formulation parameters for its sex pheromone in rubber septa. Southwest Entomol. 10:176-180.
 
Hall, D.R., Amarawardana, L., Cross, J.V., Francke, W., Boddum, T., and Hillbur, Y. 2012. The chemical ecology of Cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 38:2-22.
 
Hall, D.R., and Read, J.S. 1979. Sex attractants for two zygaenid moths. J. Entomol. Soc. South Afr. 42:115-119.
 
Hall, D.R., Beevor, P.S., Campion, D.G., Chamberlain, D.J., Cork, A., White, R.D., Almestar, A., and Henneberry, T.J. 1992. Nitrate esters: novel sex pheromone components of the cotton leafperforator, Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck. (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae). Tetrahedron Lett. 33:4811-4814.
 
Hall, D.R., Beevor, P.S., Campon, D.G., Chamberlain, D.J., Cork, A., White, R., Almestre, A., Henneberry, T.J., Nandagopal, V., Wightman, J.A., and Rao, G.V.R. 1993. Identification and synthesis of new pheromones. Bulletin OILB SROP. 16:1-9.
 
Hall, D.R., Beevor, P.S., Cork, A., Lester, R., Nesbitt, B.F., Nyirenda, G.K.C., Phiri, D.D.N., Blair, B.W., and Tannock, J. 1981. The female sex pheromone of the maize stalk-borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): identification and initial field trials. Zimbabwe J. Agric. Res. 19:111-122.
 
Hall, D.R., Beevor, P.S., Cork, A., Nesbitt, B.F., and La Croix, E.A.S. 1984. (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate: the major component of the female sex pheromone of Cryptophlebia batrachopa, a tortricid pest of macadamia in Malawi. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35:33-36.
 
Hall, D.R., Beevor, P.S., Lester, R., and Nesbitt, B.F. 1980. (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal: a component of the female sex pheromone of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Experientia. 36:152-154.
 
Hall, D.R., Cork, A., Lester, R., Nesbitt, B.F., and Zagatti, P. 1987. Sex pheromone of rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton. II. Identification and role of female pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 13:1575-1589.
 
Hall, D.R., Cork, A., Phythian, S.J., Chittamuru, S., Jayarama, B.K., Venkatesha, M.G., Sreedharan, K., Vinod Kumar, P.K., Seetharama, H.G., and Naidu, R. 2006. Identification of components of male-produced pheromone of coffee white stemborer, Xylotrechus quadripes. J. Chem. Ecol. 32:195-219.
 
Hall, D.R., Farman, D.I., Cross, J.V., Pope, T.W., Ando, T., and Yamamoto, M. 2009. (S)-2-acetoxy-5-undecanone, female sex pheromone of the raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi (Barnes). J. Chem. Ecol. 35:230-242.
 
Hall, F.R., Hollingworth, R.M., and Shankland, D.L. 1970. Cyanide tolerance in millipedes: comparison of respiration in millipedes and insects. Entomol. News. 80:277-282.
 
Hall, P., and Traniello, J.F.A. 1985. Behavioral bioassays of termite trail pheromones. Recruitment and orientation effects of cembrene-A in Nasutitermes costalis (Isoptera: Termitidae) and discussion of factors affecting termite ressponse in experimental contexts. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1503-1513.
 
Hallett, R.H., Gries, G., Gries, R., Borden, J.H., Czyzewska, E., Oehlschlager, A.C., Pierce, H.D., Jr., Angerilli, N.P.D., and Rauf, A. 1993. Aggregation pheromones of two Asian palm weevils, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and R. vulneratus. Naturwissenschaften. 80:328-331.
 
Hallett, R.H., Perez, A.L., Gries, G., Gries, R., Pierce, Jr., H.D., Yue, J., Oehlschlager, A.C., Gonzalez, L.M., and Borden, J.H. 1995. Aggregation pheromone of coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 21:1549-1570.
 
Halperin, J., and Golan, Y. 1982. Attraction of males of Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams to the sex pheromone of Th. pityocampa Schiff. Phytoparasitica. 10:140.
 
Hamilton, J.G.C., Brazil, R.P., and Maingon, R. 2004. A fourth chemotype of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Jaíbas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. J. Med. Entomol. 41:1021-1026.
 
Hamilton, J.G.C., Dawson, G.W., and Pickett, J.A. 1996a. 3-methyl-alpha-himachalene: proposed structure for novel homosesquiterpene sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Jacobina, Brazil. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:2331-2340.
 
Hamilton, J.G.C., Dawson, G.W., and Pickett, J.A. 1996b. 9-methylgermacrene-B; proposed structure for novel homosesquiterpene from the sex pheromone glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lapinha, Brazil. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:1477-1491.
 
Hamilton, J.G.C., Gough, A.J.E., Staddon, B.W., and Games, D.E. 1985. Multichemical defense of plant bug Hotea gambiae (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae). (E)-2-hexenol from abdominal gland in adults. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1399-1409.
 
Hamilton, J.G.C., Hall, D.R., and Kirk, W.D.J. 2005. Identification of a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:1369-1379.
 
Hammack, L. 2001. Single and blended maize volatiles as attractants for diabroticite corn rootworm beetles. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:1373-1390.
 
Hammack, L. 2003. Volatile semiochemical impact on trapping and distribution in maize of northern and western corn rootworm beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Agric. Forest Entomol. 5:113-122.
 
Hammack, L., and Hesler, L.S. 1996. Phenylpropanoids as attractants for adult Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 33:859-862.
 
Hammack, L., Hibbard, B.E., Holyoke, C.W., Kline, M., and Leva, D.M. 1999. Behavioral response of corn rootworm adults to host plant volatiles perceived by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environ. Entomol. 28:961-967.
 
Hammouda, Y., and Salama, R.B. 1974. Isolation of cantharidin from Epicauta tomentosa. Die Pharmazie. 29:147-148.
 
Hamstead, E.O., Dolphin, R.E., and Roelofs, W. 1972. Field test of virgin female and synthetic sex-lure traps for male redbanded leafrollers. Environ. Entomol. 1:488-489.
 
Han, B.Y., and Chen, Z.M. 2002. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of natural enemies to synomones from tea shoots and kairomones from tea aphids, Toxoptera aurantii. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:2203-2219.
 
Han, B.Y., and Chen, Z.M. 2005. Composition of the volatiles from intact and mechanically pierced tea aphid-tea shoot complexes and their attraction to natural enemies of the tea aphid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:2571-2575.
 
Han, G.-B., Ma, R.-Y., Du, J.-W., and Hu, C. 1999. The sex pheromone communication system of adult jujube leafroller Ancylis sativa Liu. Acta Entomol. Sin. 42:25-30.
 
Han, K.S., Jung, J.K., Choi, K.H., Lee, S.W., and Boo, K.S. 2000. Sex pheromone composition and male trapping of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in Korea. J. Asia Pacific Entomol. 3:83-88.
 
Han, K.S., Jung, J.K., Choi, K.H., Lee, S.W., and Boo, K.S. 2001. Sex pheromone composition and male trapping of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Korea. J. Asia Pacific Entomol. 4:31-35.
 
Hancock, D.L. 1985. A specific male attractant for the melon fly, Dacus vertebratus. Zimbabwe Science News. 19:118-119.
 
Hand, S.C., Ellis, N.W., and Stoakley, J.T. 1987. Development of a pheromone monitoring system for the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.), in apples and in Sitka spruce. Crop Prot. 6:191-196.
 
Haniotakis, G., Francke, W., Mori, K., Redlich, H., and Schurig, V. J. 1986. Sex-specific activity of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, the major pheromone of Dacus oleae. J. Chem. Ecol. 12:1559-1568.
 
Hanks, L.M., Millar, J.G., Moreira, J.A., Barbour, J.D., Lacey, E.S., McElfresh, J.S., Reuter, F.R., and Ray, A.M. 2007. Using generic pheromone lures to expedite Identification of aggregation pheromones for the cerambycid beetles Xylotrechus nauticus, Phymatodes lecontei, and Neoclytus modestus modestus. J. Chem. Ecol. 33:889-907.
 
Hansen, K. 1984. Discrimination and production of disparlure enantiomers by the gypsy moth and the nun moth. Physiol. Entomol. 9:9-18.
 
Hanson, P.E., Yoder, J.A., Pizzuli, J.L., and Sanders, C.I. 2002. Identification of 2,4-dichlorophenol in females of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), and its possible role as a component of the attractant sex pheromone. J. Med. Entomol. 39:945-947.
 
Hanssen, H.P., and Jacob, J. 1983. Sex-dependent monoterpene formation in Harpocera thoracica (Hemiptera). Naturwissenschaften. 70:622-623.
 
Hansson, B.S., Blackwell, A., Hallberg, E., and Löfqvist, J. 1995. Physiological and morphological characteristics of the sex pheromone detecting system in male corn stemborers, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Insect Physiol. 41:171-178.
 
Hansson, B.S., Szöcs, G., Schmidt, F., Francke, W., Löfstedt, C., and Tóth, M. 1990b. Electrophysiological and chemical analysis of sex pheromone communication system of the mottled umber, Erannis defoliaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). J. Chem. Ecol. 16:1887-1897.
 
Hansson, B.S., Tóth, M., Löfstedt, C., Szöcs, G., Subchev, M., and Löfqvist, J. 1990a. Pheromone variation among eastern European and a western Asian population of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:1611-1622.
 
Hanula, J.L., Berisford, C.W., and DeBarr, G.L. 1984. Pheromone cross-attraction and inhibition among four coneworms, Dioryctria spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a loblolly pine seed orchard. Environ. Entomol. 13:1298-1301.
 
Hanus, R., Šobotník, J., Krasulová, J., Jiroš, P., Žácek, P., Kalinová, B., Dolejšová, K., Cvacka, J., Bourguignon, T., Roisin, Y., Lacey, M.J., and Sillam-Dussès, D. 2012. Nonadecadienone, a new termite trail-following pheromone identified in Glossotermes oculatus (Serritermitidae). Chem. Senses. 37:55-63.
 
Happ, G.M. 1968. Quinone and hydrocarbon production in the defensive glands of Eleodes longicollis and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). J. Insect Physiol. 14:1821-1837.
 
Hara, M.R., Cavalheiro, A.J., Gnaspini, P., and Santos, D.Y.A.C. 2005. A comparative analysis of the chemical nature of defensive secretions of Gonyleptidae (Arachnida:Opiliones:Laniatores). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 33:1210-1225.
 
Hardee, D.D., McKibben, G.H., Rummel, D.R., Huddleston, P.M., and Coppedge, J.R. 1974. Response of boll weevils to component ratios and doses of the pheromone, grandlure. Environ. Entomol. 3:135-138.
 
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Hardie, J., Peace, L., Pickett, J.A., Smiley, D.W.M., Storer, J.R., and Wadhams, L.J. 1997. Sex pheromone stereochemistry and purity affect field catches of male aphids. J. Chem. Ecol. 23:2547-2554.
 
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Heath, R.R., Landolt, P.J., Tumlinson, J.H., Chambers, D.L., Murphy, R.E., Doolittle, R.E., Dueben, B.D., Sivinski, J., and Calkins, C.O. 1991. Analysis, synthesis, formulation, and field testing of three major components of male Mediterranean fruit fly pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 17:1925-1940.
 
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Heath, R.R., Mitchell, E.R., and Tovar, J.C. 1990. Effect of release rate and ratio of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol from synthetic pheromone blends on trap capture of Heliothis subflexa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 16:1259-1268.
 
Heath, R.R., Teal, P.E.A., Epsky, N.D., Dueben, B.D., Hight, S.D., Bloem, S., Carpenter, J.E., Weissling, T.J., Kendra, P.E., Cibrian-Tovar, J., and Bloem, K.A. 2006. Pheromone-based attractant-for males of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 35:1469-1476.
 
Heath, R.R., Tumlinson, J.H., Leppla, N.C., McLaughlin, J.R., Dueben, B., Dundulis, E., and Guy, R.H. 1983. Identification of a sex pheromone produced by female velvetbean caterpillar moth. J. Chem. Ecol. 9:645-656.
 
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Citation: El-Sayed AM 2014. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
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