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Rabemanantsoa, A., Ranarivelo, Y., Andriantsiferana, M., Tillequin, F., Silverton, J.V., Garraffo, H.M., Spande, T.F., Yeh, H.J.C., and Daly, J.W. 1996. A new secotrinervitane diterpene isolated from soldiers of the Madagascan termite species, Nasutitermes canaliculatus. J. Nat. Prod. 59:883-886.
 
Radford, P., Attygalle, A.B., Meinwald, J., Smedley, S.R., and Eisner, T. 1997. Pyrrolidinoöxazolidine alkaloids from two species of ladybird beetles. J. Nat. Prod. 60:755 -759.
 
Radwan, H.S.A., Assal, O.M., Mostafa, M.A., Salem, M.M., and Badr, M.A. 1984. Field screening tests of synthetic chemical attractants for heteropterous insects. Bull. Soc. Entomol. 65:33-41.
 
Raguso, R.A., and Light, D.M. 1998. Electroantennogram responses of male Sphinx perelegans hawkmoths to floral and 'green-leaf volatiles'. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 86:287-293.
 
Rahn, R. 1979a. The leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella Z.: possibility of issuing general agricultural warnings on the basis of sexual trapping using synthetic products. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 11:611-616.
 
Rahn, R., and Renou, M. 1979b. Towards the utilisation of a synthetic pheromone, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, in the control of the leek moth, Acrolepiopsis (ex. Acrolepia) assectella Z., Lepidoptera Plutellidae. C.R. Acad. Sean. Agric. Fr. 65:759-765.
 
Rai, M.M., Hassanali, A., Saini, R.K., Odongo, H., and Kahoro, H. 1997. Identification of components of the oviposition aggregation pheromone of the gregarious desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal). J. Insect Physiol. 43:83-87.
 
Raina, A.K., Kingan, T.G., and Mattoo, A.K. 1992. Chemical signals from host plant and sexual behavior in a moth. Science. 255:592-594.
 
Raina, A.K., Klun, J.A., Lopez, J.D., and Leonhardt, B.A. 1986b. Female sex pheromone of Heliothis phloxiphaga (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): chemical identification, male behavioral response in the flight tunnel, and field tests. Environ. Entomol. 15:931-935.
 
Raina, A.K., Klun, J.A., Schwarz, M., Day, A., Leonhardt, B.A., and Douglass, L.W. 1986a. Female sex pheromone of the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and analysis of male responses to pheromone in a flight tunnel. J. Chem. Ecol. 12:229-237.
 
Ramachandran, R., Caballero, P., and Khan, Z.R. 1990a. Pheromone components of rice leaffolders (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis. Int. Rice Res. New. 15:25-26.
 
Ramachandran, R., Khan, Z.R., Caballero, P., and Juliano, B.O. 1990b. Olfactory sensitivity of two sympatric species of rice leaf folders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to plant volatiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:2647-2666.
 
Ramachandran, R., Norris, D.M., Phillips, J.K., and Phillips, T.W. 1991. Volatiles mediating plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions: soybean looper frass volatiles, 3-octanone and guaiacol, as kairomones for the parasitoid Microplitis demolitor. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:2310-2317.
 
Raman, K.V. 1982. Field trials with the sex pheromone of the potato tuberworm. Environ. Entomol. 11:367-370.
 
Ramaswamy, S.B., and Roush, R.T. 1986. Sex pheromone titers in females of Heliothis virescens from three geographical locations (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomol. Gen. 12:19-23.
 
Ramaswamy, S.B., Randle, S.A., and Ma, W.K. 1985. Field evaluation of the sex pheromone components of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cone traps. Environ. Entomol. 14:293-296.
 
Ramirez Lucas, P., Rochat, D., and Zagatti, P. 1996. Field trapping of Metamasius hemipterus with synthetic aggregation pheromone. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 80:453-460.
 
Rangaswamy, J.R., and Sasikala, V.B. 1991a. Sex pheromone properties of Z-2-nonenyl propionate isolated from virgin females of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 29:263-269.
 
Rangaswamy, J.R., and Sasikala, V.B. 1991b. Aggregation pheromone activity of compounds isolated from male red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 29:52-55.
 
Rao, A.G., Krishnaiah, K., Hall, D.R., Cork, A., and Reddy, D.D.R. 1993. Evaluation of sex pheromone components of rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee. Current Sci. 65:355-356.
 
Rao, A.G., Reddy, D.D.R., Krishnaiah, K., Beevor, P.S., Cork, A., and Hall, D.R. 1995. Identification and field optimisation of the female sex pheromone of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in India. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 74:195-200.
 
Rao, S., Cossé, A.A., Zilkowski, B.W., and Bartelt, R.J. 2003. Aggregation pheromone of the cereal leaf beetle: field evaluation and emission from males in the laboratory. J. Chem. Ecol. 29:2165-2175.
 
Rappaport, N.G., Stein, J.D., Del Rio-Mora, A.A., DeBarr, G., De Groot, P., and Mori, S. 2000. Responses of Conophthorus spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to behavioral chemicals in field trials: a transcontinental perspective. Can. Entomol. 132:925-937.
 
Raptopoulos, D., Haniotakis, G., Koutsaftikis, A., Kelly, D., and Mavraganis, V. 1995. Biological activity of chemicals identified from extracts and volatiles of male Rhagoletis cerasis. J. Chem. Ecol. 21:1287-1297.
 
Rasmont, P., Terzo, M., Aytekin, A.M., Hines, H., Urbanova, K., Cahlikova, L., and Valterova, I. 2005. Cephalic secretions of the bumblebee subgenus Sibiricobombus Vogt suggest Bombus niveatus Kriechbaumer and Bombus vorticosus Gerstaecker are conspecific (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus). Apidologie. 36:571-584.
 
Rasmussen, L.E.L. 2001. Source and cyclic pattern of (Z)-7-Dodecenyl acetate, the pre-ovulatory pheromone of the female Asian elephant. Chem. Senses. 26:611-623.
 
Rasmussen, L.E.L., Lee, T.D., Daves, G.D., Jr., and Schmidt, M.J. 1993. Female to male sex pheromones of low volatility in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:2115-2128.
 
Rasmussen, L.E.L., Lee, T.D., Roelofs, W.L., Zhang, A., and Daves, G.D. 1996. Insect pheromone in elephants. Nature. 379:684.
 
Raspotnig, G. 2006. Chemical alarm and defence in the oribatid mite Collohmannia gigantea (Acari: Oribatida). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 39:177-194.
 
Raspotnig, G., Fauler, G., Leis, M., and Leis, H.-J. 2005c. Chemical profiles of scent gland secretions in the cyphophthalmid opilionid harvestmen, Siro duricorius and S. exilis. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:1353-1368.
 
Raspotnig, G., Freitag, B., Kastberger, G., Windischhofer, W., and Leis, H.J. 1998. 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal in the scent gland secretion of male cave crickets, Troglophilus cavicola and T. neglectus (Ensifera: Rhaphidophoridae). J. Insect Physiol. 44:413-417.
 
Raspotnig, G., Kaiser, R., Stabentheiner, E., and Leis, H.-J. 2008. Chrysomelidial in the opisthonotal glands of the oribatid mite, Oribotritia berlesei. J. Chem. Ecol. 34:1081-1088.
 
Raspotnig, G., Krisper, G., and Schuster, R. 2004. Oil gland chemistry of Trhypochthonius tectorum (Acari: Oribatida) with reference to the phylogenetic significance of secretion profiles in the Trhypochthoniidae. Int. J. Acarol. 30:369-374.
 
Raspotnig, G., Krisper, G., and Schuster, R. 2005a. Ontogenetic changes in the chemistry and morphology of oil glands in Hermannia convexa (Acari: Oribatida). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 35:47-58.
 
Raspotnig, G., Krisper, G., Schuster, R., Fauler, G., and Leis, H.-J. 2005b. Volatile exudates from the oribatid mite, Platynothrus peltifer. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:419-430.
 
Raspotnig, G., Leutgeb, V., Krisper, G., and Leis, H.-J. 2011a. Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 54:211-224.
 
Raspotnig, G., Leutgeb, V., Schaider, M., and Komposch, C. 2010. Naphthoquinones and anthraquinones from scent glands of a dyspnoid harvestman, Paranemastoma quadripunctatum. J. Chem. Ecol. 36:158-162.
 
Raspotnig, G., Schaider, M., Föttinger, P., Komposch, C., and Karaman, I. 2011b. Nitrogen-containing compounds in the scent gland secretions of European Cladonychiid harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores, Travunioidea). J. Chem. Ecol. 37:912-921.
 
Raspotnig, G., Schuster, R., Krisper, G., Fauler, G., and Leis, H.-J. 2001. Chemistry of the oil gland secretion of Collohmannia gigantea (Acari: Oribatida). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 25:933-946.
 
Raspotnig, G., Schwab, J., and Karaman, I. 2012. High conservatism in the composition of scent gland secretions in cyphophthalmid harvestmen: evidence from Pettalidae. J. Chem. Ecol. 38:437-440.
 
Rauscher, S., Arn, H., and Guerin, P. 1984. Effects of dodecyl acetate and Z-10-tridecenyl acetate on attraction of Eupoecilia ambiguella males to the main sex pheromone component, Z-9-dodecenyl acetate. J. Chem. Ecol. 10:253-264.
 
Ray, A.M., Barbour, J.D., McElfresh, J.S., Moreira, J.A., Swift, I., Wright, I.M., Zunic, A., Mitchell, R.F., Graham, E.E., Alten, R.L., Millar, J.G., and Hanks, L.M. 2012. 2,3-Hexanediols as sex attractants and a female-produced sex pheromone for cerambycid beetles in the prionine genus Tragosoma. J. Chem. Ecol. 38:1151-1158.
 
Ray, A.M., Millar, J.G., McElfresh, J.S., Swift, I.P., Barbour, J.D., and Hanks, L.M. 2009a. Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Rosalia funebris. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:96-103.
 
Ray, A.M., Swift, I.P., McElfresh, J.S., Alten, R.L., and Millar, J.G. 2012. (R)-desmolactone, A female-produced sex pheromone component of the cerambycid beetle Desmocerus californicus californicus (subfamily Lepturinae). J. Chem. Ecol. 38:157-167.
 
Ray, A.M., Swift, I.P., Moreira, J.A., Millar, J.G., and Hanks, L.M. 2009b. (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of Anelaphus inflaticollis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environ. Entomol. 38:1462-1466.
 
Ray, A.M., Žunic, A., Alten, R.L., McElfresh, J.S., Hanks, L.M., and Millar, J.G. 2011. Cis-vaccenyl acetate, a female-produced sex pheromone component of Ortholeptura valida, a longhorned beetle in the subfamily Lepturinae. J. Chem Ecol. 37:173-178.
 
Raymer, J.,Wiesler, D., Novotny, M., Asa, C., Seal, U.S., and Mech, L.D. 1985. Chemical investigations of wolf (Canis lupus) anal-sac secretion in relation to breeding season. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:593-608.
 
Raymond, H.L. 1976. The horse-flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of the department of Hautes-Alpes. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 8:443-456.
 
Raymond, H.L. 1978. Contribution to the study of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of the Camargue. Terre et la Vie. 32:291-303.
 
Raymond, H.L. 1987. The advantage of using carbon dioxide-baited Malaise traps to study crepuscular horseflies (Diptera, Tabanidae) in French Guiana. Insect Sci. Appl. 8:337-341.
 
Razowski, J. 1976. Phylogeny and system of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). Acta Zool. Cracov. 21:73-118.
 
Read, J.S., and Beevor, P.S. 1976. Analytical studies on the sex pheromone complex of Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 12:55-57.
 
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Read, J.S., and Warren, F.L. 1968. Identification of the sex pheromone of the false codling moth (Argyroploce leucotreta). J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1968:792-793.
 
Read, J.S., Hewitt, P.H., Warren, F.L., and Myberg, A.C. 1974. Isolation of the sex pheromone of the moth Argyroploce leucotreta. J. Insect Physiol. 20:441-450.
 
Rebouças, L.M.C., Do Caraciolo, M.S.B., Sant'Ana, A.E.G., Pickett, J.A., Wadhams, L.J., and Pow, E.M. 1999. Composição química da glândula abdominal da fêmea da mariposa Castnia licus (Drury) (Lepidoptera:Castniidae): possíveis feromônios e precursores. Quím. Nova. 22:645-648.
 
Rechav, Y. 1983. Evidence for the existence of a sex pheromone in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 20:342.
 
Reddy, G.V.P., and Guerrero, A. 2000. Behavioral responses of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to green leaf volatiles of Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:6025-6029.
 
Reddy, G.V.P., Fettköther , R., Noldt, U., and Dettner, K. 2005. Capture of female Hylotrupes bajulus as influenced by trap type and pheromone blend. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:2169-2177.
 
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Redlich, H., Xian-Jun, J., Paulsen, H., and Francke, W. 1981. Darstellung von (S)-2,5-dimethyl-2-isopropyl-2,3-dihydrohuran, einem der beiden enantiomeren des sexuallockstoffs des werftkaefers, Hylecoetus dermestoides L. Tetrahedron Lett. 22:5043-5046.
 
Reed, D.W., and Chisholm, M.D. 1985a. Field trapping of three Epinotia species with (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1389-1398.
 
Reed, D.W., and Chisholm, M.D. 1985b. Attraction of moth species of Tortricidae, Gelechiidae, Geometridae, Drepanidae, Pyralidae, and Gracillariidae families to field traps baited with conjugated dienes. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1645-1657.
 
Reed, D.W., Chisholm, M.D., and Underhill, E.W. 1984. Sex attractant for three species of the genus Oncocnemis: O. chandleri (Grt.), O. cibalis (Grt.), and O. mackiei (B. & Benj.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1701-1706.
 
Reed, D.W., Underhill, E.W., and Giblin, E.M. 1987. Attraction of sphingid moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) to 10,12-hexadecadienyl aldehydes and acetates: evidence of pheromone components. J. Chem. Ecol. 13:931-942.
 
Reed, H.C., and Landolt, P.J. 2002. Trap response of Michigan social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to the feeding attractants acetic acid, isobutanol, and heptyl butyrate. Great Lakes Entomol. 35:71-77.
 
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Regev, S., and Cone, W.W. 1980. The monoterpene citronellol, as a male sex attractant of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Environ. Entomol. 9:50-52.
 
Reginaldo P Brazil, R.P., Caballero, N.N., and Hamilton, J.G.C. 2009. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay. Parasites & Vectors. 2:51.
 
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Citation: El-Sayed AM 2014. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
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