Bedoukian     Laser Vibrometer


Home
Animal Taxa
Plant Taxa
Semiochemicals
Floral Compounds
Semiochemical Detail
Semiochemicals & Taxa
Synthesis
Control
Invasive spp.

References
  » References A-Z
  Discovery By Author
  Discovery By Year
  Discovery By Journal
  Journal Abbreviation

Abstract
Guide
 
 
Print
Email to a Friend
Kindly Donate for The Pherobase

References Index - L

  A  B  C  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  Ô  P  Q  R  S  Š  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  Ž 

La Croix, E.A.S., Thindwa, H.Z., and Hall, D.R. 1985. Field studies with the synthetic female sex pheromones of Cryptophlebia batrachopa and C. leucotreta, pests of macadamia in Malawi. Trop. Pest Manag. 31:189-191.
 
Laanmaa, M.K., Ivanova V.T., Mottus, E.R., and Kalinkin, V.M. 1990. Sex attractant for leaf miner moth, Lithocolletis pyrifoliella Grsm (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Proc. Conf. Insect Chem. Ecol. 125-128.
 
Laberge, F., and Hara, T.J. 2003. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses to F-prostaglandins, putative spawning pheromones, in three salmonid fishes. J. Fish Biol. 62:206-221.
 
Lacey, E.S., Ginzel, M.D., Millar, J.G., and Hanks, L.M. 2004. Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:1493-1507.
 
Lacey, E.S., Ginzel, M.D., Millar, J.G., and Hanks, L.M. 2008b. 7-methylheptacosane is a major component of the contact sex pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus. Physiol. Entomol. 33:209-216.
 
Lacey, E.S., Millar, J.G., Moreira, J.A., and Hanks, L.M. 2009. Male-produced aggregation pheromones of the cerambycid beetles Xylotrechus colonus and Sarosesthes fulminans. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:733-740.
 
Lacey, E.S., Moreira, J.A., Millar, J.G., and Hanks, L.M. 2008a. A male-produced aggregation pheromone blend consisting of alkanediols, terpenoids, and an aromatic alcohol from the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae. J. Chem. Ecol. 34:408-417.
 
Lacey, E.S., Moreira, J.A., Millar, J.G., Ray, A.M., and Hanks, L.M. 2007. Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 122:171-179.
 
Lacey, M.J., Sémon, E., Krasulová, J., Sillam-Dussès, D., Robert, A., Cornette, R., Hoskovec, M., Žácek, P., Valterová, I., and Bordereau, C. 2011. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex peromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae). J. Insect Physiol.57:1585-1591.
 
Ladd, T.L., Jr. 1980. Japanese beetle: enhancement of lures by eugenol and caproic acid. Econ. Entomol. 73:718-720.
 
Ladd, T.L., Jr. 1984b. Eugenol-related attractants for the northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 77:339-341.
 
Ladd, T.L., Jr., and McGovern, T.P.J. 1984a. 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, a potent new enhancer of lures for the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Econ. Entomol. 77:957-959.
 
Laduguie, N., Robert, A., Bonnard, O., Vieau, F., Le Quere, J.L., Sémon, E., and Bordereau, C. 1994. Isolation and identification of (3Z,6Z,8E)-3,6,8-dodecatrien-1-ol in Reticulitermes santonensis Feytaud (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae): roles in worker trail-following and in alate sex-attraction behavior. J. Insect Physiol. 40:781-787.
 
Lahav, S., Soroker, V., Vander Meer, R.K., and Hefetz, A. 2001. Segregation of colony odor in the desert ant Cataglyphis niger. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:927-943.
 
Lalanne-Cassou, B., and Frérot, B. 1980. Analysis of pheromonal secretion of South African carnation tortrix, Epichoristodes acerbella (Walk.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). C.R. Hebd. Sean. Acad. Sci. 291:845-848.
 
Lalanne-Cassou, B., Silvain, J.F., Monti, L., and Malosse, C. 1994. Description of a new species of Spodoptera from French Guiana: S. descoinsi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae), discovered with the help of sex attractants. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 30:25-32.
 
Lalor, P.F., and Hughes, W.H.O. 2011. Alarm behaviour in Eciton army ants. Physiol. Entomol. 36:1-7.
 
Lampman, R.L., and Metcalf, R.L. 1987. Multicomponent kairomonal lures for southern and western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica spp.). J. Econ. Entomol. 80:1137-1142.
 
Lampman, R.L., and Metcalf, R.L. 1988. The comparative response of Diabrotica species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to volatile attractants. Environ. Entomol. 17:644-648.
 
Lance, D.R. 1992. Non-pheromonal attractants for mexican corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera zeae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 65:10-15.
 
Lance, D.R., and Elliott, N.C. 1991. Seasonal responses of corn rootworm beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to non-pheromonal attractants. J. Entomol. Sci. 26:188-196.
 
Landolt, P.J. 1990. Trapping the green june beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with isopropanol. Fla. Entomol. 73:328-330.
 
Landolt, P.J. 1998b. Chemical attractants for trapping yellowjackets Vespula germanica and Vespula pensylvanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Environ. Entomol. 27:1229-1234.
 
Landolt, P.J. 1998c. A chemical attractant for the golden paper wasp, Polistes aurifer Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 71:69-73.
 
Landolt, P.J. 2000a. New chemical attractants for trapping Lacanobia subjuncta, Mamestra configurata, and Xestia c-nigrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93:101-106.
 
Landolt, P.J., Adams, T., and Rogg, H. 2012. Trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), with combinations of vinegar and wine, and acetic acid and ethanol. J. Appl. Entomol. 136:148-154.
 
Landolt, P.J., Adams, T., and Zack, R.S. 2006a. Field response of alfalfa looper and cabbage looper moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Plusiinae) to single and binary blends of floral odorants. Environ. Entomol. 35:276-281.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Curtis, C.E. 1982. Interspecific sexual attraction between Pyralis farinalis L. and Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 55:248-252.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Heath, R.R. 1986c. A sex attractant synergist for Trichoplusia oxygramma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Fla. Entomol. 69:425-426.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Heath, R.R. 1989b. Lure composition, component ratio, and dose for trapping male Mocis latipes (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with synthetic sex pheromone. J. Econ. Entomol. 82:307-309.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Heath, R.R. 1991. Zygaenidae trapped with enantiomers of 2-butyl (Z)-7-tetradecenoate. J. Lepid. Soc. 45:63-65.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Heath, R.R., and Tumlinson, J.H. 1988. Effects of age, mating, and time of day on behavioral responses of female papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker (Diptera: Tephritidae), to synthetic sex pheromone. Environ. Entomol. 17:47-51.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Higbee, B.S. 2002c. Both sexes of the true armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) trapped with the feeding attractant composed of acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Fla. Entomol. 85:182-185.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Roberts, D. 2012. A sex attractant for trapping Crambus cypridalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Fla. Entomol. 95:194-195.
 
Landolt, P.J., and Smithhisler C.L. 1998a. Isolation and identification of female sex pheromone and development of a sex attractant for Lacanobia subjuncta. J. Chem. Ecol. 24:1369-1379.
 
Landolt, P.J., Guédot, C., and Zack, R.S. 2011. Spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) responses to sex pheromone and blacklight. J. Appl. Entomol. 135:593-600.
 
Landolt, P.J., Heath, R.R., and Leppla, N.C. 1986b. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-eicosatriene and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heneicosatriene as sex pheromone components of a grass looper, Mocis disseverans (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Entomol. 15:1272-1274.
 
Landolt, P.J., Heath, R.R., Millar, J.G., Davis-Hernandez, K.M., Dueben, B.D., and Ward, K.E. 1994. Effects of host plant, Gossypium hirsutum L., on sexual attraction of cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 20:2959-2974.
 
Landolt, P.J., Heath, R.R., Reed, H.C., and Manning, K. 1995. Pheromonal mediation of alarm in the eastern yellowjacket (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Fla. Entomol. 78:101-108.
 
Landolt, P.J., Heath, R.R., Sonnet, P.E., and Matsumoto, K. 1986a. Attraction of Harrisina americana and Acoloithus falsarius males (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) to (R)-(-)-2-butyl-(Z)-7-tetradecenoate. Environ. Entomol. 15:959-962.
 
Landolt, P.J., Pantoja, A., Hagerty, A., Crabo, L., and Green, D. 2007. Moths trapped in Alaska with feeding attractant lures and the seasonal flight patterns of potential agricultural pests. Can. Entomol. 139:278-291.
 
Landolt, P.J., Reed, H.C., Aldrich, J.R., Antonelli, A.L., and Dickey, C. 1999. Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) trapped with acetic acid and isobutanol. Fla. Entomol. 82:609-614.
 
Landolt, P.J., Reed, H.C., and Ellis, D.J. 2003b. Trapping yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with heptyl butyrate emitted from controlled-release dispensers. Fla. Entomol. 86:323-328.
 
Landolt, P.J., Roberts, D., Corp, M., and Rondon, S.I. 2011. Trap response of Dargida terrapictalis (Buckett) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to a sex attractant in wheat-growing areas of eastern Washington and neighboring Oregon. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 84:139-147.
 
Landolt, P.J., Smithhisler, C., Adams, T., and Zack, R.S. 2003a. An improved multi-component sex attractant for trapping male western yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera praefica (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agric. Forest Entomol. 5:333-339.
 
Landolt, P.J., Smithhisler, C.L., Zack, R.S., and Camelo, L. 2006b. Attraction of Heliothis belladonna (Henry and Edwards) to the sex pheromone of the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 79:303-308.
 
Landolt, P.J., Solomon, J.D., and Doolittle, R.E. 1985. Attraction of male Prionoxystus piger (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) to isomers of 3,5-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate. Fla. Entomol. 68:228-230.
 
Landolt, P.J., Tóth, M., Francke, W., and Mori, K. 1996. Attraction of moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae, Noctuidae) to enantiomers of several epoxydienes. Fla. Entomol. 79:392-397.
 
Landolt, P.J., Tumlinson, J.H., and Brennan, M.M. 1989a. Attraction of Amphion floridensis (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) to bombykal, (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal. Fla. Entomol. 72:324-327.
 
Landolt, P.J., Wixson, T., Remke, L.J., Lewis, R.R., and Zack, R.S. 2000b. Methyl anthranilate attracts males of Thaumatomyia glabra (Meigen) (Diptera: Chloropidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 73:189-194.
 
Landon, F., Ferary, S., Pierre, D., Auger, J., Biemont, J.C., Levieux, J., and Pouzat, J. 1997. Sitona lineatus host-plant odors and their components: effect on locomotor behavior and peripheral sensitivity variations. J. Chem. Ecol. 23:2161-2173.
 
Lang, C., Seifert, K., and Dettner, K. 2012. Skimming behaviour and spreading potential of Stenus species and Dianous coerulescens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Naturwissenschaften. 99:937-947.
 
Lanier, G.N., Gore, W.E., Pearce, G.T., Peacock, J.W., and Silverstein, R.M. 1977. Response of the European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to isomers and components of its pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 3:1-8.
 
Lanier, G.N., Qi, Y.-T., West, J.R., Park, S.C., Webster, F.X., and Silverstein, R.M. 1989. Identification of the sex pheromone of three Matsucoccus pine bast scales. J. Chem. Ecol. 15:1645-1659.
 
Lanne, B.S., Bergström, G., and Löfqvist, J. 1988. Dufour gland alkenes from the four ant species: F. polyctena, F. lugubris, F. truncorum, and F. uranlensis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 91:729-734.
 
Lanne, B.S., Schlyter, F., Byers, J.A., Löfqvist, J., Leufven, A., Bergström, G., Van der Pers, J.N.C., Unelius, R., and Norin, T. Differences in attraction to semiochemicals present in the sympatric pine shoot beetles Tomicus minor and T. piniperda. J. Chem. Ecol. 13:1045-1067.
 
Lapis, E.B., and Valentin, H.O.S. 1979. Field response of ips (Ips calligraphus German) to synthetic aggregation pheromones and other attractants. Sylvatrop. 4:223-229.
 
LaPointe, S.L., Alessandro, R.T., Robbins, P.S., Khrimian, A., Svatos, A., Dickens, J.C., Otálora-Luna, F., Kaplan, F., Alborn, H.T., and Teal, P.E. 2012. Identification and synthesis of a male-produced pheromone for the neotropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus. J. Chem. Ecol. 38:408-417.
 
LaPointe, S.L., Hall, D.G., Murata, Y., Parka-Pedrazzoli, A.L., Bento, J.M.S., Vilela, E.F., and Leal, W.S. 2006. Field evaluation of a synthetic female sex pheromone for the leafmining moth Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Florida citrus. Fla. Entomol. 89:274-276.
 
LaPointe, S.L., Hunter, W.B., and Alessandro, R.T. 2004. Cuticular hydrocarbons on elytra of the Diaprepes root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Agric. Forest Entomol. 6:251-257.
 
Larsson, M.C., and Hansson, B.S. 1998. Receptor neuron responses to potential sex pheromone components in the caddisfly Rhyacophila nubila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). J. Insect Physiol. 44:189-196.
 
Larsson, M.C., Hedin, J., Svensson, G.P., Tolasch, T., and Francke, W. 2003. Characteristic odor of Osmoderma eremita identified as a male-released pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 29:575-587.
 
Larsson, M.C., Stensmyr, M.C., Bice, S.B., and Hansson, B.S. 2003. Attractiveness of fruit and flower odorants detected by olfactory receptor neurons in the fruit chafer Pachnoda marginata. J. Chem. Ecol. 29:1253-1268.
 
Lassance, J.-M., and Löfstedt, C. 2009. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. BMC Biol. 7:10.
 
Lastein, S., Hoglund, E., Mayer, I., Overli, O., and Doving, K.B. 2008. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate. J. Chem. Ecol. 34:1487-1491.
 
Laumann, R.A., Aquino, M.F.S., Moraes, M.C.B., Pareja, M., and Borges, M. 2009. Response of the egg parasitoids Trissolcus basalis and Telenomus podisi to compounds from defensive secretions of stink bugs. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:8-19.
 
Laumann, R.A., Borges, M., Aldrich, J.R., Khrimian, A., and Blassioli-Moraes, M.C. 2012. Attractant pheromone of the neotropical species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Alydidae). Psyche. 2012:1-8.
 
Laurence, B.R., and Pickett, J.A. 1982. Erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, the major component of a mosquito oviposition attractant pheromone. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1:59-60.
 
Laurence, B.R., Mori, K., Otsuka, T., Pickett, J.A., and Wadhams, L.J. 1985. Absolute configuration of mosquito oviposition attractant pheromone, 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:643-648.
 
Laurent, P., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., and Pasteels, J.M. 2002. Chilocorine D, a novel heptacyclic alkaloid from a coccinellid beetle (Chilocorus renipustulatus). Tetrahedron Lett. 43:7465-7467.
 
Laurent, P., Braekman, J.C., Daloze, D., and Pasteels, J.M. 2003a. An ecdysteroid (22-acetyl-20-hydroxyecdysone) from the defense gland secretion of an insect: Chrysolina carnifex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Chemoecology. 13:109-111.
 
Laurent, P., Daloze, D., Braekman, J.C., and Pasteels, J.M. 2005. Stenotarsol, a new terpenoid from Stenotarsus subtilis (Coleoptera: Endomychidae). Tetrahedron Lett. 46:931-932.
 
Laurent, P., Hamdani, A., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., Isbell, L.A., De Biseau, J.C., and Pasteels, J.M. 2003b. New 1-alk(en)yl-1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexanes from the dufour gland of the african ant Crematogaster nigriceps. Tetrahedron Lett. 44:1383-1386.
 
Law, J.H., Wilson, E.O., and McCloskey, J.A. 1965. Biochemical polymorphism in ants. Science. 149:544-546.
 
Le Conte, Y., Arnold, G., Trouiller, J., Masson, C., and Chappe, B. 1990. Identification of a brood pheromone in honeybees. Naturwissenschaften. 77:334-336.
 
Le Conte, Y., Arnold, G., Trouiller, J., Masson, C., Chappe, B., and Ourisson, G. 1989. Attraction of the parasitic mite Varroa to the drone larvae of honey bees by simple aliphatic esters. Science. 245:638-639.
 
Le Quere, J.L., Brossut, R., Nalepa, C.A., and Bonnard, O. 1991. Isolation and identification of 4,6,8-trimethyl-7,9-undecadien-5-ol, a female-specific compound, in tergal gland secretion of Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Dictyoptera: Cryptocercidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 17:811-821.
 
Leal, W.S. 1991. (R,Z)-5-(-)-(oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one, the sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Anomala cuprea. Naturwissenschaften. 78:521-523.
 
Leal, W.S. 1993b. (Z)- and (E)-tetradec-7-en-2-one, a new type of sex pheromone from the oriental beetle. Naturwissenschaften. 80:86-87.
 
Leal, W.S. 1996e. Chemical communication in scarab beetles: reciprocal behavioral agonist-antagonist activities of chiral pheromones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:12112-12115.
 
Leal, W.S., and Kadosawa, T. 1992c. (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate, the alarm pheromone of the bean bug Riptortus clavatus (Heteroptera: Alydidae). Biosci. Biotechn. Biochem. 56:1004-1005.
 
Leal, W.S., Bento, J.M.S., Murata, Y., Ono, M., Parra, J.R.P., and Vilela, E.F. 2001. Identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of the citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:2041-2051.
 
Leal, W.S., Bento, J.M.S., Vilela, E.F., and Della Lucia, T.M.C. 1994f. Female sex pheromone of the longhorn beetle Migdolus fryanus Westwood: N-(2'S)-methylbutanoyl 2-methylbutylamine. Experientia. 50:853-856.
 
Leal, W.S., Hasegawa, M., and Sawada, M. 1992a. Identification of Anomala schonfeldti sex pheromone by high-resolution GC-behavior bioassay. Naturwissenschaften. 79:518-519.
 
Leal, W.S., Hasegawa, M., Sawada, M., and Ono, M. 1994e. Sex pheromone of oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis: identification and field evaluation. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1705-1718.
 
Leal, W.S., Hasegawa, M., Sawada, M., Ono, M., and Tada, S. 1996a. Scarab beetle Anomala albopilosa albopilosa utilizes a more complex sex pheromone system than a similar species A. cuprea. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:2001-2010.
 
Leal, W.S., Hasegawa, M., Sawada, M., Ono, M., and Ueda, Y. 1994c. Identification and field evaluation of Anomala octiescostata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) sex pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1643-1655.
 
Leal, W.S., Higuchi, H., Mizutani, N., Nakamori, H., Kadosawa, T., and Ono, M. 1995a. Multifunctional communication in Riptortus clavatus (Heteroptera: Alydidae): conspecific nymphs and egg parasitoid Ooecyrtus nezarae use the same adult attractant pheromone as chemical cue. J. Chem. Ecol. 21:973-985.
 
Leal, W.S., Kawamura, F., and Ono, M. 1994b. The scarab beetle Anomala albopilosa sakishimana utilizes the same sex pheromone blend as a closely related and geographically isolated species, Anomala cuprea. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1667-1676.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, S., Ono, M., and Kubota, S. 1996c. (R,Z)-7,15-hexadecadien-4-olide, sex pheromone of the yellowish elongate chafer, Heptophylla picea. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 4:315-321.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, S., Shi, X.W., Higuchi, H., Marino, C.E.B., Ono, M., and Meinwald, J. 1998. Male-released sex pheromone of the stink bug Piezodorus hybneri. J. Chem. Ecol. 24:1817-1829.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, Y., and Suzuki, T. 1989c. 2-(E)-(4-Methyl-3-pentenylidene)-butanedial, beta-acaridial: A new type of monoterpene from the mold mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acarina, Acaridae). Agric. Biol. Chem. 53:875-878.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, Y., and Suzuki, T. 1990a. Hexyl 2-formyl-3-hydroxybenzoate, a fungitoxic cuticular constituent of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robin. Agric. Biol. Chem. 54:2593-2597.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, Y., and Suzuki, T. 1990b. Robinal, a highly conjugated monoterpenoid from the mite Rhizoglyphus robini chemical ecology of astigmatid mites, XXVII [I]. Naturwissenschaften. 77:387-388.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, Y., Suzuki, T., and Kurosa, K. 1989a. Beta-acaridial, the sex pheromone of the acarid mite Caloglyphus polyphyllae. Naturwissenschaften. 76:332-333.
 
Leal, W.S., Kuwahara, Y., Suzuki, T., and Kurosa, K. 1989b. The alarm pheromone of the mite Suidasia medanensis Oudemans, 1924 (Acariformes, Suidasiidae). Agric. Biol. Chem. 53:2703-2709.
 
Leal, W.S., Matsuyama, S., Kuwahara, Y., Wakamura, S., and Hasegawa, M. 1992b. An amino acid derivative as the sex pheromone of a scarab beetle. Naturwissenschaften. 79:184-185.
 
Leal, W.S., Nakano, Y., Kuwahara, Y., Nakao, H., and Suzuki, T. 1988. Pheromone study of acarid mites XVII. Identification of 2-hydroxy-6-methyl-benzaldehyde as the alarm pheromone of the acarid mite, Tyrophagus perniciosus (Acarina: Acaridae), and its distribution among related mites. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 23:422-427.
 
Leal, W.S., Oehlschlager, A.C., Zarbin, P.H.G., Hidalgo, E., Shannon, P.J., Murata, Y., Gonzalez, L., Andrade, R., and Ono, M. 2003. Sex pheromone of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga elenans and some intriguing minor components. J. Chem. Ecol. 29:12-25.
 
Leal, W.S., Ono, M., Hasegawa, M., and Sawada, M. 1994d. Kairomone from dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, attractant for scarab beetle Anomala octiescostata. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1697-1704.
 
Leal, W.S., Panizzi, A.R., and Niva, C.C. 1994a. Alarm pheromone system of leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus (Heteroptera: Coreidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1209-1216.
 
Leal, W.S., Parra-Pedrazzoli, A.L., Cosse, A.A., Murata, Y., Bento, J.M.S., and Vilela, E.F. 2006. Identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone from the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella . J. Chem. Ecol. 32:155-168.
 
Leal, W.S., Parra-Pedrazzoli, A.L., Kaissling, K.-E., Morgan, T.I., Zalom, F.G., Pesak, D.J., Dundulis, E.A., Burks, C.S., and Higbee, B.S. 2005. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist. Naturwissenschaften. 92:139-146.
 
Leal, W.S., Sawada, M., and Hasegawa, M. 1993a. The scarab beetle, Anomala daimiana utilizes a blend of two other Anomala spp. sex pheromones. Naturwissenschaften. 80:181-183.
 
Leal, W.S., Sawada, M., Matsuyama, S., Kuwahara, Y., and Hasegawa, M. 1993c. Unusual periodicity of sex pheromone production in the large black chafer Holotrichia parallela. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:1381-1391.
 
Leal, W.S., Shi, X.W., Nakamuta, K., Ono, M., and Meinwald, J. 1995b. Structure, stereochemistry, and thermal isomerization of the male sex pheromone of the longhorn beetle Anaglyptus subfasciatus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:1038-1042.
 
Leal, W.S., Ueda, Y., and Ono, M. 1996b. Attractant pheromone for male rice bug, Leptocorisa chinensis: semiochemicals produced by both male and female. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:1429-1437.
 
Leal, W.S., Yadava, C.P.S., and Vijayvergia, J.N. 1996d. Aggregation of the scarab beetle Holotrichia consanguinea in response to female-released pheromone suggests secondary function hypothesis for semiochemical. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:1557-1566.
 
Leal, W.S., Zarbin, P.H.G., Wojtasek, H., Kuwahara, S., Hasegawa, M., and Ueda, Y. 1997. Medicinal alkaloid as a sex pheromone. Nature. 385:213.
 
Lebedeva, K.V., Vasil' eva, V.S., Vendilo, N.V., Mitroshin, D.B., Shchennikov, V.A., Bocharova, N.I., Buleza, V.V., Pletnev, V.A., Kurbatov, S.A., and Ponomarev, V.L. 2002. Investigations of the pheromone of kitchen garden cutworm Mamestra oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations. Agrokhimiya. 1:72-81.
 
Lebedeva, K.V., Vendilo, N.V., Kurbatov, S.A., Pletnev, V.A., Ponomarev, V.L., Pyatnova, Y.B., and Bocharova, N.I. 2000a. Identification of the pheromone of eastern-meadow cutworm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agrokhimiya. 5:57-69.
 
Lebedeva, K.V., Vendilo, N.V., Pletnev, V.A., Ponomarev, V.L., Kurbatov, S.A., Mitroshin, D.B., Bocharova, N.I., Shchennikov, V.A. 2000c. Identification of the pheromone of the clover cutworm Scotogramma trifolii. Agrokhimiya. 7:78-81.
 
Lebedeva, K.V., Vendilo, N.V., Pletnev, V.A., Ponomarev, V.L., Kurbatov, S.A., Voronkova, V.V., and Shchennikov, V.A. 2000b. Study of the pheromone of the heart-and-dart moth, Agrotis exclamationis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agrokhimiya. 8:71-75.
 
Leblanc, L., Rubinoff, D., and Vargas, R.I. Attraction of nontarget species to fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) male lures and decaying fruit flies in traps in Hawaii. Environ. Entomol. 38:1446-1461.
 
Lebrun, B., Braekman, J.C., Daloze, D., and Pasteels, J.M. 1997. 2-dehydrococcinelline, a new defensive alkaloid from the ladybird beetle Anatis ocellata (Coccinellidae). J. Nat. Prod. 60:1148-1149.
 
Lebrun, B., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., Kalushkov, P., and Pasteels, J.M. 1998. Isopsylloborine A, a new dimeric azaphenalene alkaloid from ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Tetrahedron Lett. 40:8115-8116.
 
Lebrun, B., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., Kalushkov, P., and Pasteels, J.M. 2001. Hyperaspine, a new 3-oxaquinolizidine alkaloid from Hyperaspis campestris (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Tetrahedron Lett. 42:4621-4623.
 
Lecheva, I. 1999. Possibilities of implementing synthetic sex pheromones against the geometrid Erannis bajaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Rasteniev`dni Nauki. 36:397-400.
 
Lecheva, I.H., and Subchev, M.A. 1998. Seasonal monitoring of Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) by means of pheromone traps in Bulgaria. Acta Zool. Bulg. 50:111-116.
 
Leckstein, P.M., and Llewelyn, M. 1974. The role of amino acids in diet intake and selection and the utilisation of dipeptides by Aphis fabae. J. Insect Physiol. 20:877-885.
 
Leclercq, S., Charles, S., Daloze, D., Braekman, J.-C., Aron, S., and Pasteels, J.M. 2001. Absolute configuration of anabasine from Messor and Aphaenogaster ants. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:945-952.
 
Leclercq, S., De Biseau, J.C., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., Quinet, Y., Luhmer, M., Sundin, A., and Pasteels, J.M. 2000. Furanocembranoid diterpenes as defensive compounds in the dufour gland of the ant Crematogaster brevispinosa rochai. Tetrahedron. 56:2037-2042.
 
Lee, K.-C., Kang, C.-H., Lee, D.W., Lee, S.M., Park, C.-G., and Choo, H.Y. 2002. Seasonal occurrence trends of hemipteran bug pests monitored by mercury light and aggregation pheromone traps in sweet persimmon ochards. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 41:233-238.
 
Leeuw, I. 1983. Thyris maculata (Thyrididae) and three species of clearwing moths (Sesiidae) attracted to an artificial chemical bait. J. Lepid. Soc. 37:87-88.
 
Legrand, S., Botton, M., Coracini, M., Witzgall, P., and Unelius, C.R. 2004. Synthesis and field tests of sex pheromone components of the leafroller Argyrotaenia sphaleropa. Z. Naturforsch. C. 59:708-712.
 
Lelito, J.P.,Böröczky, K., Jones, T.H., Fraser, I., Mastro, V.C., Tumlinson, J.H., and Baker, T.C. 2009. Behavioral evidence for a contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:104-110.
 
Lemmen, J. and Evenden, M., 2009. Peripheral and behavioral plasticity of pheromone response and its hormonal control in a long-lived moth. J. Exp. Biol. 212:2000-2006.
 
Leonhardt, B.A., Mastro, V.C., Schwarz, M., Tang, J.D., Charlton, R.E., Pellegrini-Toole, A., Warthen, J.D., Jr., Schwalbe, C.P., and Cardé, R.T. 1991. Identification of sex pheromone of browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 17:897-910.
 
Leonhardt, B.A., Neal, J.W., Klun, J.A., Jr., Schwarz, M., and Plimmer, J.R. 1983. An unusual lepidopteran sex pheromone system in the bagworm moth. Science. 219:314-316.
 
Leonovich, S.A. 2004. Phenol and lactone receptors in the distal sensilla of the Haller's organ in Ixodes ricinus ticks and their possible role in host perception. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 32:89-102.
 
Lerin, J. 1984. The effect of two isothiocyanates on the levels of capture in yellow traps of insect pests of colza. Acta Oecol. 5:61-70.
 
Leroy, P.D., Schillings, T., Farmakidis, J., Heuskin, S., Lognay, G., Verheggen, F.J., Brostaux, Y., Haubruge, E., and Francis, F. 2012. Testing semiochemicals from aphid, plant and conspecific: attraction of Harmonia axyridis. Insect Sci. 19:372-382.
 
Leroy, P.D., Verheggen, F.J., Capella, Q., Francis, F., and Haubruge, E. 2010. An introduction device for the aphidophagous hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Biolog. Control. 54:181-188.
 
Leskey, T.C., and Hogmire, H.W. 2005. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:143-153.
 
Leskey, T.C., and Wright, S.E. 2004. Monitoring plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations in apple and peach orchards in the mid-Atlantic. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:79-88.
 
Leskey, T.C., Bergh, J.C., Walgenbach, J.F., and Zhang, A.J. 2006. Attractiveness and specificity of pheromone-baited traps for male dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Environ. Entomol. 35:268-275.
 
Leskey, T.C., Prokopy, R.J., Wright, S.E., Phelan, P.L., and Haynes, L.W. 2001. Evaluation of individual components of plum odor as potential attractants for adult plum curculios. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:1-17.
 
Leslie, C.A., and Overhulser, D.L. 1982. Citronellol attracts male Prenolepis imparis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Can. Entomol. 114:1197-1198.
 
Leuthold, R.H., and Schlunegger, U. 1973. The alarm behaviour from the mandibular gland secretion in the ant Crematogaster scutellaris. Insectes Soc. 20:205-214.
 
Levinson, H.Z., and Mori, K. 1980. The pheromone activity of chiral isomers of trogodermal for male khapra beetles. Naturwissenschaften. 67:148-149.
 
Levinson, H.Z., Levinson, A.R., and Maschwitz, U. 1974. Action and composition of the alarm pheromone of the bedbug Cimex lectularius L. Naturwissenschaften. 61:684-685.
 
Levinson, H.Z., Levinson, A.R., Francke, W., Mackenroth, W., and Heemann, V. 1981. The pheromone activity of anhydroserricornin and serricornin for male cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne F.). Naturwissenschaften. 68:148-149.
 
Levinson, H.Z., Levinson, A.R., Jen, T.-L., Williams, J.L.D., Kahn, G., and Francke, W. 1978. Production site, partial composition and olfactory perception of a pheromone in the male hide beetle. Naturwissenschaften. 65:543.
 
Levi-Zada, A., Ben-Yehuda, S., Dunkelblum, E., Gindin, G., Fefer, D., Protasov, A., Kuznetsowa, T., Manulis-Sasson, S., and Mendel, Z. 2011b. Identification and field bioassays of the sex pheromone of the yellow-legged clearwing Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae). Chemoecology. 21:227-233.
 
Levi-Zada, A., Fefer, D., Anshelevitch, L., Litovsky, A., Bengtsson, M., Gindin, G., and Soroker, V. 2011a. Identification of the sex pheromone of the lesser date moth, Batrachedra amydraula, using sequential SPME auto-sampling. Tetrahedron Lett. 52:4550-4553.
 
Levi-Zada, A., Sadowsky, A., Dobrinin, S., David, M., Ticuchinski, T., Fefer, D., Greenberg, A., and Blumberg, D. 2012. Reevaluation of the sex pheromone of the lesser date moth, Batrachedra amydraula, using autosampling SPME-GC/MS and field bioassays. Chemoecology. 23:13-20.
 
Lewis, E.E., Gaugler, R., and Harrison, R. 1993. Response of cruiser and ambusher entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae) to host volatile cues. Can. J. Zool. 71:765-769.
 
Lewis, P.A., Lampman, R.L., and Metcalf, R.L. 1990. Kairomonal attractants for Acalymma vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environ. Entomol. 19:8-14.
 
Lewis, T., Wall, C., Macaulay, E.D.M., and Greenway, A.R. 1975. The behavioural basis of a pheromone monitoring system for pea moth, Cydia nigricana. Ann. Appl. Biol. 80:257-274.
 
Lewis, W.J., Sonnet, P.E., and Nordlund, D.A. 1988. Response of braconid parasitoids Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) and M. demolitor Wilkinson to stereoisomers of kairomone 13-methylhentriacontane. J. Chem. Ecol. 14:883-888.
 
Leyrer, R.L., and Monroe, R.E. 1973. Isolation and identification of the scent of the moth, Galleria mellonella and a revaluation of its sex pheromone. J. Insect Physiol. 19:2267-2271.
 
Li, J., Gries, R., Gries, G., Slessor, K.N., King, G.G.S., Bowers, W.W., and West, R.J. 1993. Chirality of 5,11-dimethylheptadecane, the major sex pheromone component of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). J. Chem. Ecol. 19:1057-1062.
 
Li, J.-X., Gries, G., Gries, R., Bikic, J., and Slessor, K.N. 1993. Chirality of synergistic sex pheromone components of the western hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). J. Chem. Ecol. 19:2547-2561.
 
Li, P., Luo, Y., Bernhardt, P., Kou, Y., and Perner, H. 2008. Pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum (Orchidaceae) by Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae): the roles of generalist attractants versus restrictive floral architecture. Plant Biol. 10:220-230.
 
Li, W., Scott, A.P., Siefkes, M.J., Yan, H., Liu, Q., Yun, S.-S., and Gage, D.A. 2002. Bile acid secreted by male sea lamprey that acts as a sex pheromone. Science. 296:138-141.
 
Li, W.W., Meng, X.Z., Deng, Y.H., and Hu, X.G. 1993. Experimental effects on field trapping of noctuids using several sex attractants. Entomol. Knowledg. 30:38-40.
 
Li, W.-Z., Yuan, G.-H., Sheng, C.-F., and Guo, X.-R. 2005. Active compounds in Populus nigra L. wilted leaves responsible for attracting Helicoverpa armigera (Hu¨ bner) (Lep., Noctuidae) and new agaropectin formulation. J. Appl. Entomol. 129:557-562.
 
Li, Z.-M., Batra, S.W.T., and Plimmer, J.R. 1990. The chemical characterization of the cephalic secretion of the Australian colletid bee, Hylaeus albonitens (Gnathoprosopis Cockerell). Chin. J. Chem. 2:160-168.
 
Li, Z.-M., Yao, E.-Y., Liu, T.-L., Liu, Z.-P., Wang, S.-H., Zhu, H.-Q., Zhao, G., and Ren, Z.-L. 1993. Structural elucidation of sex pheromone components of the Geometridae Semiothisa cinerearia (Bremer et Grey) in China. Chinese J. Chem. 11:251-256.
 
Li, Z.X., Liu, C.Q., Wang, Q.L., and Cui, J.Y. 1995. Effect of attractants on scarabee. Acta Agric. Bor. Sin. 10:153-156.
 
Libbey, L.M., Morgan, M.E., Putnam, T.B., and Rudinsky, J.A. 1974. Pheromones released during inter- and intra-sex response of the scolytid beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis. J. Insect Physiol. 20:1667-1671.
 
Libbey, L.M., Morgan, M.E., Putnam, T.B., and Rudinsky, J.A. 1976. Isomer of antiaggregative pheromone identified from male douglas-fir beetle: 3-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one. J. Insect Physiol. 22:871-873.
 
Libbey, L.M., Oehlschlager, A.C., and Ryker, L.C. 1983. 1-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol as an aggregation pheromone of Dendroctonus pseudotsugae. J. Chem. Ecol. 9:1533-1541.
 
Liblikas, I., Mottus, E., Borg-Karlson, A.K., Kuusik, S., Ojarand, A., Kannaste, A., and Tanilsoo, J. 2003. Flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) response to alkyl thiocyanates and alkyl isothiocyanates. Agron. Res. 1:175-184.
 
Liburd, O.E. 2004. Identification of host volatile compounds for monitoring blueberry maggot fly. Small Fruits Rev. 3:307-312.
 
Liburd, O.E., Alm, S.R., Casagrande, R.A., and Polavarapu, S. 1998. Effect of trap color, bait, shape, and orientation in attraction of blueberry maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 91:243-249.
 
Lichtenberg, E.M., Hrncir, M., Turatti, I.C., and Nieh, J.C. 2011. Olfactory eavesdropping between two competing stingless bee species. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65:763-774.
 
Liebhold, A.M., and Silk, P.J. 1991. Capture of Choristoneura pinus maritima in traps baited with C. pinus pinus pheromone components (Tortricidae). J. Lepidop. Soc. 45:172-173.
 
Liebhold, A.M., and Volney, W.J.A. 1985. Effects of attractant composition and release rate on attraction of male Choristoneura retiniana, C. occidentalis, and C. carnana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Can. Entomol. 117:447-457.
 
Liepert, C., and Dettner, K. 1996. Role of cuticular hydrocarbons of aphid parasitoids in their relationship to aphid-attending ants. J. Chem. Ecol. 22:695-707.
 
Light, D.M. 1983. Sensitivity of antennae of male and female Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to their natural aggregation pheromone and its enantiomeric components. J. Chem. Ecol. 9:561-584.
 
Light, D.M., and Knight, A. 2005. Specificity of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for the host plant kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate: field bioassays with pome fruit volatiles, analogue, and isomeric compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:4046-4053.
 
Light, D.M., Kamm, J.A., and Buttery, R.G. 1992. Electroantennogram response of alfalfa seed chalcid, Bruchophagus roddi (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) to host- and nonhost-plant volatiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 18:333-352.
 
Light, D.M., Knight, A.L., Henrick, C.A., Rajapaska, D., Lingren, B., Dickens, J.C., Reynolds, K.M., Buttery, R.G., Merrill, G., Roitman, J., Campbell, B.C. 2001. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Naturwissenschaften. 88:333-338.
 
Liguori, P.G., Zerba, E., Alzogaray, R.A., and Audino, G.P. 2008. 3-Pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the Ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus. J. Chem. Ecol. 34:1446-1451.
 
Lilley, R., Hardie, J., Merritt, L.A., Pickett, J.A., Wadhams, L.J., and Woodcock, C.M. 1995. The sex pheromone of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fab.) (Homoptera, Aphididae). Chemoecology. 6:43-46.
 
Lima, E.R., Vilela, E.F., and Sanchez, G.R. 1998. Evaluation of the synthetic sexual pheromone on the reproductive behaviour of Mocis latipes (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. 27:9-20.
 
Lima, I.S., Howse, P.E., and Do Nascimento, R.R. 2001. Volatile substances from male Anastrepha fraterculus Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae): identification and behavioural activity. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 12:196-201.
 
Lin, G.-Q. 1993. Structural elucidation and chiral syntheses of insect pheromones and extension of the synthetic approaches. Pure Appl. Chem. 65:1233-1240.
 
Lin, G.-Q., Guo, G.-Z., Wu, Y.-W., Wu, B.-Q., Liu, L.-G., and Zhou, W.-S. 1984. Study on identification and syntheses of insect pheromone XV. Multiple sex pheromone of Ancylis sativa. Kexue Tongbao. 29:1670-1674.
 
Lin, H., and Phelan, P.L. 1991a. Identification of food volatiles attractive to dusky sap beetle, Carpophilus lugubris (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 17:1273-1286.
 
Lin, H., and Phelan, P.L. 1991b. Identification of food volatiles attractive to Glischrochilus quadrisignatus and Glischrochilus fasciatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 17:2469-2480.
 
Lin, Y.M., Chow, Y.S., and Tzeng, H.C. 1982. Field trapping of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaues) and Pseudaletia separata Walker using the synthetic sex pheromone of the diamondback moth Pest of cruciferous vegetables, Taiwan. Bull. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sin. 21:121-127.
 
Lindelöw, A., Eidmann, H.H., and Nordenheim, H. 1993. Response on the ground of bark beetle and weevil species colonizing conifer stumps and roots to terpenes and ethanol. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:1393-1403.
 
Lindgren, B.S., and Miller, D.R. 2002a. Effect of verbenone on five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in lodgepole pine forests. Environ. Entomol. 31:759-765.
 
Lindgren, B.S., and Miller, D.R. 2002b. Effect of verbenone on attraction of predatory and woodboring beetles (Coleoptera) to kairomones in lodgepole pine forests. Environ. Entomol. 31:766-773.
 
Lindgren, B.S., Borden, J.H., Pierce, A.M., Pierce, H.D., Jr., Oehlschlager, A.C., and Wong, J.W. 1985. A potential method for simultaneous semiochemical-based monitoring of Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Cucujidae and Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 21:83-87.
 
Lindgren, B.S., Gries, G., Pierce, H.D., Jr., and Mori, K. 1992. Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): production of and response to enatiomers of 1-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol. J. Chem. Ecol. 18:1201-1208.
 
Lindstrom, M., Norin, T., Valterova, I., and Vrkoc, J. 1990. Chirality of the monoterpene alarm pheromones of termites. Naturwissenschaften. 77:134-135.
 
Lingenfelter, E.A., Williams, R.N., Haynes, L.W., and Fickle, D.S. 2003. Evaporation rates of a five-component attractant for the rose chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 38:104-110.
 
Linley, J.R. 1989. Laboratory tests of the effects of p-cresol and 4-methylcyclohexanol on oviposition by three species of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes. Med. Vet. Entomol. 3:347-352.
 
Linley, J.R., and Carlson, D.A. 1978. A contact mating pheromone in the biting midge, Culicoides melleus. J. Insect. Physiol. 24:423.
 
Linn, C.E. Jr., Musto, C.J., and Roelofs, W.L. 2007. More rare males in Ostrinia: response of Asian corn borer moths to the sex pheromone of the European corn borer. J. Chem. Ecol. 33:199-212.
 
Linn, C.E., and Roelofs, W.L. 1983. Effect of varying proportions of the alcohol component on sex pheromone blend discrimination in male oriental fruit moths. Physiol. Entomol. 8:291-306.
 
Linn, C.E., Jr., and Roelofs, W.L. 1985. Response specificity of male pink bollworm moths to different blends and dosages of sex pheromone. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1583-1590.
 
Linn, C.E., Jr., Bjostad, L.B., Du, J.W., and Roelofs, W.L. 1984. Redundancy in a chemical signal: behavioral responses of male Trichoplusia ni to a 6-component sex pheromone blend. J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1635-1658.
 
Linn, C.E., Jr., Du, J., Hammond, A., and Roelofs, W.L. 1987. Identification of unique pheromone components for soybean looper moth Pseudoplusia includens. J. Chem. Ecol. 13:1351-1360.
 
Linnaluoto, E.T., and Koponen, S. 1983. Northern moths (Lepidoptera) attracted by synthetic pheromones. Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 49:64.
 
Liska, J., Hochmut, R., and Jurik, J. 1990. Field trials with sexual attractants of Zeiraphera griseana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the High Tatras. Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 87:81-86.
 
Liu, J.Z., Jiang, Z.J., Yang, Y.P., and Sun, R.Y. 1998. Quantitative variation of the sex pheromone, 2, 6-dichlorophenol, of Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae), and its role in biology. Acta Parasit. Med. Entomol. Sin. 5:253-257.
 
Liu, M.Y., Tian, Y., and Li, Y.X. 1994. Identification of minor components of the sex pheromone of yellow peach moth, Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, and field trials. Entomol. Sin. 1:150-155.
 
Liu, M.Y., Yan, Y.H., Cai, L.M., Chen, Y., and Yang, C. 1992. Field trapping tests on the synthetic sex pheromone of the white sugarcane borer, Scirpophaga excerptalis. Chin. J. Biol. Control. 8:58-61.
 
Liu, S.-H., Norris, D.M., and Lyne, P. 1989. Volatiles from the foliage of soybean, Glycine max, and lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus: their behavioral effects on the insects Trichoplusia ni and Epilachna varivestis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:496-501.
 
Liu, W. 1999. Semiochemistry of Orgyia and Diatraea Lepidopteran species and affinity labelling of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase. Thesis Uni. Simon Fraser. 1-298.
 
Liu, Y. 2002. Identification of recruitment pheromones in the harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex. Fenxi Huaxue. 30:298-300.
 
Liu, Y.-J., Hall, D., Jerry Cross, J., Farman, D., Amarawardana, L., Liu, Q.-R., and He, X.-K. 2009. (2S,8Z)-2-butyroxy-8-heptadecene: major component of the sex pheromone of chrysanthemum gall midge, Rhopalomyia longicauda. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:715-723.
 
Liu, Y.-X., and Meng, X.-Z. 2002a. Behavioral response of male Acleris fimbriana Thunberg et Becklin (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to synthetic sex pheromones. Act. Entomol. Sin. 45:436-440.
 
Liu, Y.-X., and Meng, X.-Z. 2002b. Identification of sex-pheromone components for Acleris fimbriana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Can. Entomol. 134:511-518.
 
Liu, Y.-X., and Meng, X.-Z. 2003. Trapping effect of synthetic sex pheromone of Acleris fimbriana (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) in Chinese northern orchard. Z. Naturforsch. C. 58:421-425.
 
Livingston, W.H., Bedard, W.D., Mangini, A.C., and Kinzer, H.G. 1983. Verbenone interrupts attraction of roundheaded pine beetle, Dentdroctonus adjunctus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to sources of its natural attractant. J. Econ. Entomol. 76:1041-1043.
 
Lloyd, H.A., Blum, M.S., and Duffield, R.M. 1975. Chemistry of the male mandibular gland secretion of the ant, Camponotus clarithorax. Insect Biochem. 5:489-494.
 
Lloyd, H.A., Blum, M.S., Snelling, R.R., and Evans, S.L. 1989. Chemistry of mandibular and dufour's gland secretions of ants in genus Myrmecocystus. J. Chem. Ecol. 15:2589-2599.
 
Lloyd, H.A., Evans, S.L., Khan, A.H., Tschinkel, W.R., and Blum, M.S. 1978. 8-hydroxyisocoumarin and 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxyisocoumarin in the defensive secretion of the tenebrionid beetle, Apsena pubescens. Insect Biochem. 8:333-336.
 
Lloyd, H.A., Jones, T.H., Hefetz, A., and Tengö, J. 1990. Lasiol, a new acyclic monoterpenol in the mandibular gland secretion of Lasius meridionalis. Tetrahedron Lett. 31:5559-5562.
 
Lloyd, H.A., Schmuff, N.R., and Hefetz, A. 1984. Chemistry of the male mandibular gland secretion of the carpenter ant, Camponotus thoracicus fellah emery. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 78:687-689.
 
Lloyd, H.A., Schmuff, N.R., and Hefetz, A. 1986. Chemistry of the anal glands of Bothriomyrmex syrius forel. Olfactory mimetism and temporary social parasitism. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 83:71-3.
 
Lloyd, J.E., and Pennington, R.G. 1976. Mosquitoes collected in a CO2-baited CDC miniature light trap and a bovine-baited trap in Wyoming. Mosquito News. 36:457-459.
 
Lo Pinto, M., Lo Bue, P., Peri, E., Agrò, A., Liotta, G., and Colazza, S. 2002. Responses of Aphytis chilensis to the synthetic sex pheromone of the Oleander scale. IOBC Bull. 25:271-276.
 
Lockey, K.H. 1981. Cuticular hydrocarbons of adult Cylindrinotus laevioctostriatus (Goeze) and Phylan gibbus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae). Insect Biochem. 11:549-561.
 
Lockey, K.H. 1982a. Hydrocarbons of adult Onymacris plana (Peringuey) and Onymacris rugatipennis (Haag) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Insect Biochem. 12:69-81.
 
Lockey, K.H. 1982b. Hydrocarbons of adult Physadesmia globosa (Haag) and Stenocara gracilipes (Haag) (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae). Insect Biochem. 12:331-342.
 
Lockey, K.H. 1984a. Hydrocarbons of Metriopus depressus (Haag) and Renatiella scrobipennis (Haag) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Insect Biochem. 14:65-75.
 
Lockey, K.H. 1984b. Hydrocarbons of adult Zophosis (Gyrosis) species and Zophosis (Onychosis) gracilipes (Deyrolle) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Insect Biochem. 14:645-75.
 
Lockwood, J.A., and Story, R.N. 1987. Defensive secretion of the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as an alarm pheromone. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 80:686-691.
 
Löfqvist, J. 1976. Formic acid and saturated hydrocarbons as alarm pheromones for the ant Formica rufa. J. Insect Physiol. 22:1331-1346.
 
Löfqvist, J. 1977. Toxic properties of the chemical defence systems in the competitive ants Formica rufa and F. sanguinea. Oikos. 28:137-151.
 
Löfqvist, J., and Bergström, G. 1980. Nerol-derived volatile signals as a biochemical basis for reproductive isolation between sympatric populations of three species of ant-lions. Insect Biochem. 10:1.
 
Löfqvist, J., and Bergström, G. 1980. Volatile communication substances in Dufour's gland of virgin females and old queens of the ant Formica polyctena. J. Chem. Ecol. 6:309-320.
 
Löfstedt, C. 1990. Evolution of moth pheromones. Insect Chem. Ecol. Conf. 57-73.
 
Löfstedt, C., and Herrebout, W.M. 1988. Sex pheromones of three small ermine moths found on the European spindle tree. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 46:29-38.
 
Löfstedt, C., and van der Pers, J.N.C. 1985a. Sex pheromones and reproductive isolation in four European small ermine moths. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:649-666.
 
Löfstedt, C., Bergmann, J., Francke, W., Jirle, E., Hansson, B.S., and Ivanov, V.D. 2008. Identification of a sex pheromone produced by sternal glands in females of the caddisfly Molanna angustata Curtis. J. Chem. Ecol. 34:220-228.
 
Löfstedt, C., Hansson, B.S., Dijkerman, H.J., and Herrebout, W.M. 1990b. Behavioural and electrophysiological activity of unsaturated analogues of the pheromone tetradecyl acetate in the small ermine moth Yponomeuta rorellus. Physiol. Entomol. 15:47-54.
 
Löfstedt, C., Hansson, B.S., Petersson, E., Valeur, P., and Richards, A. 1994b. Pheromonal secretions from glands on the 5th abdominal sternite of hydropsychid and rhyacophilid caddisflies (Trichoptera). J. Chem. Ecol. 20:153-170.
 
Löfstedt, C., Hansson, B.S., Tóth, M., Szöcs, G., Bûda, V., Bengtsson, M., Ryrholm, N., Svensson, M., and Priesner, E. 1994a. Pheromone differences between sibling taxa Diachrysia chrysitis (Linnaeus, 1758) and D. tutti (Kostrowicki, 1961) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 20:91-109.
 
Löfstedt, C., Herrebout, W.M., and Du, J.-W. 1986a. Evolution of the ermine moth pheromone tetradecyl acetate. Nature. 323:621-623.
 
Löfstedt, C., Linn, C.E., Jr., and Löfqvist, J. 1985b. Behavioral responses of male turnip moths, Agrotis segetum, to sex pheromone in a flight tunnel and in the field. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1209-1221.
 
Löfstedt, C., Löfqvist, J., and Roques, A. 1986c. Pheromones for trapping of two moth species in seed orchards. IUFRO. 247-255.
 
Löfstedt, C., Löfqvist, J., Lanne, B.S., van der Pers, J.N.C., and Hansson, B.S. 1986b. Pheromone dialects in European turnip moths Agrotis segetum. Oikos. 46:250-257.
 
Löfstedt, C., Svensson, G.P., Jirle, E.V., Rosenberg, O., Roques, A., and Millar, J.G. 2012. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (9Z,11E)-tetradecadienyl acetate: sex pheromone of the spruce coneworm Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Appl. Entomol.136:70-78.
 
Löfstedt, C., van der Pers, J.N.C., Löfqvist, J., and Lanne, B.S. 1983. Sex pheromone of the cone pyralid Dioryctria abietella. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 34:20-26.
 
Löfstedt, C., van der Pers, J.N.C., Löfqvist, J., and, Lanne, B.S. 1983. Sex pheromone of the cone pyralid Dioryctria abietella. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 34:20-26.
 
Löfstedt, C., van der Pers, J.N.C., Löfqvist, J., Lanne, B.S., Appelgren, M., Bergström, G., and Thelin, B. 1982. Sex pheromone components of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum: chemical identification, electrophysiological evaluation and behavioral activity. J. Chem. Ecol. 8:1305-1321.
 
Löfstedt, C., Zhu, J., Kozlov, M.V., Bûda, V., Jirle, E.V., Hellqvist, S., Löfqvist, J., Plass, E., Franke, S., and Francke, W. 2004. Identification of the sex pheromone of the currant shoot borer Lampronia capitella. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:643-658.
 
Lognay, G., Hemptinne, J.L., Chan, F.Y., Gaspar, C.H., Marlier, M., Braekman, J.C., Daloze, D., and Pasteels, J.M. 1996. Adalinine, a new piperidine alkaloid from the ladybird beetles Adalia bipunctata and Adalia decempunctata. J. Nat. Prod. 59:510-511.
 
Lokensgard, J., Smith, R.L., Eisner, T., and Meinwald, J. 1993. Pregnanes from defensive glands of a belostomatid bug. Experientia. 49:175-176.
 
Lonergan, G.C., Ponder, B.M., Seabrook, W.D., and Kipp, L.R. 1989. Sex pheromone components of the blueberry leaftier moth Croesia curvalana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 15:2495-2506.
 
Longhurst, C, Baker, R., and Howse, P.E. 1979. Termite predation by Megaponera foetens (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Coordination of raids by glandular secretions. J. Chem. Ecol. 5:703-719.
 
Longhurst, C., Baker, R., and Howse, P.E. 1980b. A multicomponent mandibular gland secretion in the ponerine ant Bothroponera soror (Emery). J. Insect Physiol. 26:551-555.
 
Longhurst, C., Baker, R., and Howse, P.E. 1980c. A comparative analysis of mandibular gland secretions in the ant tribe Tetramoriini. Insect Biochem. 10:107-112.
 
Longhurst, C., Baker, R., and Mori, K. 1980a. Response of the sawfly Diprion similis to chiral sex pheromones. Experientia. 36:946-947.
 
Longhurst, C., Baker, R., Howse, P.E., and Speed, W. 1978. Alkylpyrazinesin ponerine ants: their presence in three genera, and caste specific behavioural responses to them in Odontomachus troglodytes. J. Insect Physiol. 24:833-837.
 
Loon, J.J.A. van, Frentz, W.H., van Eeuwijk, F.A. 1992. Electroantennogram response to plant volatiles in two species of Pieris butterflies. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 62:253-260.
 
Lopez, J.D., Jr., and Shaver, T.N. 1990. Plastic laminate dispenser for components of the Heliothis zea sex pheromone. Southwest. Entomol. 15:1-8.
 
López, P., Amo, L., and Martín, J. 2006. Reliable signaling by chemical cues of male traits and health state in male lizards, Lacerta monticola. J. Chem. Ecol. 32:473-488.
 
López, P., and Martín, J. 2005. Intersexual differences in chemical composition of precloacal gland secretions of the amphisbaenian Blanus cinereus. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:2913-2921.
 
Lopez, P., and Martín, J. 2009. Lipids in femoral gland secretions of male lizards, Psammodromus hispanicus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 37:304-307.
 
López, S., Quero, C., Iturrondobeitia, J.C., Guerrero, A., and Goldarazena, A. 2011. Evidence for (E)-pityol as an aggregation pheromone of Pityophthorus pubescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Can. Entomol. 143:447-454.
 
López, S., Quero, C., Iturrondobeitia, J.C., Guerrero, A., and Goldarazena, A. 2013. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of Pityophthorus pubescens (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) to (E,E)-a-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone in Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) stands in northern Spain. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:40-47.
 
Lopez-Riquelme, G.O., Malo, E.A., Cruz-López, L., and Fanjul-Moles, M.L. 2006. Antennal olfactory sensitivity in response to task-related odours of three castes of the ant Atta mexicana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Physiol. Entomol. 31:353.
 
Lorenzi, M.C., Bagnères, A.G., Clément, J.-L., and Turillazzi, S. 1997. Polistes biglumis bimaculatus epicuticular hydrocarbons and nestmate recognition (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Soc. 44:123-138.
 
Loughrin, J.H., Potter, D.A., Hamilton-Kemp, T.R., Byers, M.E. 1996. Volatile compounds from crabapple (Malus spp.) cultivars differing in susceptibility to the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman). J. Chem. Ecol. 22:1295-1305.
 
Louly, C.C.B., Silveira, D.D., Soares, S.F., Ferri, P.H., De Melo, A.C.C., and Borges, L.M.F. 2008. More about the role of 2,6-dichlorophenol in tick courtship: identification and olfactometer bioassay in Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mem. Inst. O. Cruz. 103:60-65.
 
Louw, S., Burger, B.V., Le Roux, M., and Van Wyk, J.H. 2007. Lizard epidermal gland secretions I: chemical characterization of the femoral gland secretion of the sungazer, Cordylus giganteus. J. Chem. Ecol. 33:1806-1818.
 
Lowor, S.T., DelSocorro, A.P., and Gregg, P.C. 2005. Sex pheromones of Creontiades dilutus (Stål) (Hemiptera: Miridae): identification and field tests. ISCE Washington. 130.
 
Lozano, C., Gonzalez, E., Pena, A., Campos, M., Plaza, M.T., Rodriguez, M., Izquierdo, I., and Tamayo, J. 2000. Response of parasitoids Dendrosoter protuberans and Cheiropachus quadrum to attractants of Phloeotribus scarabaeoides in an olfactometer. J. Chem. Ecol. 26:791-799.
 
Lozano, C., Gonzalez, E., Pena, A., Campos, M., Plaza, M.T., Rodriguez, M., Izquierdo, I., and Tamayo, J. Response of parasitoids Dendrosoter protuberans and Cheiropachus quadrum to attractants of Phloeotribus scarabaeoides in an olfactometer. J. Chem. Ecol. 26:791-799.
 
Lu, F., and Teal, P.E.A. 2001. Sex pheromone components in oral secretions and crop of male caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 48:144-154.
 
Lu, P.-F., Huang, L.-Q., and Wang, C.-Z. 2012. Identification and field evaluation of pear fruit volatiles attractive to the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta. J. Chem. Ecol. 38:1003-1016.
 
Lu, X. et al. 1998. Analysis on pheromone of the different voltinism ecotypes of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). J. Jilin Agric. Uni. 20:20-23.
 
Luby, J. M., Regnier, F. E., Clarke, E. T., Weaver, E. C., and Weaver, N. 1973. Volatile cephalic substances of the stingless bees, Trigona mexicana and Trigona pectoralis. J. Insect Physiol. 19:1111-1127.
 
Lucas, P., Renou, M., Tellier, F., Hammoud, A., Audemard, H., and Descoins, C. 1994. Electrophysiological and field activity of halogenated analogs of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the main pheromone component, in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 20:489-503.
 
Lugemwa, F.N., Lwande, W., Bentley, M.D., Mendel, M.J., and Randall Alford, A. 1989. Volatiles of wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium: possible attractants for the blueberry maggot fruit fly, Rhagoletis mendax. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37:232-233.
 
Lundgren, L., and Bergström, G. 1975. Wing scents and scent-released phases in the courtship behavior of Lycaeides argyrognomon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 1:399-412.
 
Lusebrink, I., Burkhardt, D., Gedig, T., Dettner, K., Mosandl, A., and Seifert, K. 2007. Intrageneric differences in the four stereoisomers of stenusine in the rove beetle genus, Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). Naturwissenschaften. 94:143-147.
 
Lusebrink, I., Dettner, K., Schierling, A., Müller, T., Daolio, C., Schneider, B., Schmidt, J., and Seifert, K. 2008. New pyridine alkaloids from rove beetles of the genus Stenus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Z. Naturforsch. C. 64:271-278.
 
Luxova, A., Urbanova, K., Valterova, I., Terzo, M., and Borg-Karlson, A.K. 2004. Absolute configuration of chiral terpenes in marking pheromones of bumblebees and cuckoo bumblebees. Chirality. 16:228-233.
 
Lynch, R.E., Klun, J.A., Leonhardt, B.A., Schwarz, M., and Garner, J.W. 1984. Female sex pheromone of the lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 13:121-126.
 

 
Back to top
 
Citation: El-Sayed AM 2014. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. <http://www.pherobase.com>.
© 2003-2014 The Pherobase - Extensive Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. Ashraf M. El-Sayed.
Page created on 23-February-2014