What is the Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer ?

  • The Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer is a new device for releasing semiochemicals or odours that provides significant advantages over the passive substrates (i.e., filter paper, rubber septa, etc) for releasing semiochemicals or odours.

  • The Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer allows precise release of semiochemicals and odours during the entire course of an experiment.

  • Release rate can be set to almost any value, i.e. pg/min, fg/min, etc.

  • The Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer can release any mixture of semiochemicals or odours at constant ratios and rates.

  • The release rate of semiochemicals or odours is not affected by factors such as the vapor pressures and mole percentages of the compounds, temperature, relative humidity, material surface area, and wind speed.

  • Can be used in the laboratory and field experiments.

  • Multiple Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayers can be used to provide dynamic control over stimulus application.


List of some laboratories that implemented the Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer in their research:

  • Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, California, USA.

  • Max Planck Institute, Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany.

  • USDA/ARS, Illinois, USA.

  • USDA/ARS, Wapato, Washington, USA.

  • Department of Experimental Ecology. University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany

  • East Malling Research, Kent, UK.

  • Department of Primary Industry (DPI), Shepparton, Australia.

  • Lund University, Chemical Ecology group, Lund, Sweden.

  • Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences (SLU), Chemical Ecology group, Alnarp, Sweden.

  • Cornell University, Agriculture Experimental Station, Dept. Entomology, Geneva , NY, USA.

  • University of Alberta, Dept. of Biology, Edmonton, Canada.

  • Agriculture and Agri-Food, Vineland, Canada.

  • Agriculture and Agri-Food, Summerland, Canada.

  • Research Institute for Plant Protection, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

  • North Dakota State University, Department of Entomology, Fargo, USA.

  • Universitat de Lleida, Departament de Producció Vegetal. Lleida, Spain.

  • Sterling International Inc, Spokane, USA.

  • Istituto Agrario San Michele all'Adige, SafeCrop Center, San Michele all'Adige, Italy.

  • Pland and Food Rserach, Lincoln, New Zealand.

Selected publications where the Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer has been used for precision delivery of odor stimulus:

  • Becher, P.G., Bengtsson, M., Hansson, B.S ., Witzgall, P. 2010. Flying the fly: Long-range flight behavior of Drosophila melanogaster to attractive odors. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36: 599-607.

  • Trimble, R. M., and Marshall, D. 2010. Differences in the relationship between sensory adaptation of antennae and concentration of aerial pheromone in the oriental fruit moth and obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Implications for the role of adaptation in sex Pheromone-mediated mating disruption of these species. Environmental Entomology. 39: 625-632.

  • Schmidt-Busser D, von Arx M , Guerin PM.  2010. Host plant volatiles serve to increase the response of male European grape berry moths, Eupoecilia ambiguella, to their sex pheromone. Journal of Comparative Physiology A-Neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology.  195: 853-864.

  • Girling R.D., and Carde R.T. 2007 Analysis and manipulation of the structure of odor plumes from a piezo-electric release system and measurements of upwind flight of male almond moths, Cadra cautella, to pheromone plumes.  Journal of Chemical Ecology.33:1927-1945.

  • Tasin, M., Backman, A-C., Bengtsson, M., et al. 2006. Wind tunnel attraction of grapevine moth females, Lobesia botrana, to natural and artificial grape odour. Chemoecology. 16: 87-92.

  • DeLury, N.C., Judd G.J.R., Gardiner M.G.T. 2006. Attraction of male Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) to natural and synthetic pheromone sources: importance for assessing communication disruption.  Canadian Entomologist. 138: 697-711.

  • Tasin, M. Bäckman, A-C. Bengtsson, M., Ioriatti, C., and Witzgall, P. 2006. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth. Naturwissenschaften. 93: 141–144.

  • Olsson, C. P.-O., Anderbrant, O., Löfstedt, C., Borg-Karlson, A.-K., and Liblikas, I. 2005. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses to chocolate volatiles in both sexes of the pyralid moths Ephestia cautella and Plodia interpunctella. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31:2947-2961.

  • Svensson, G.P., Löfstedt, C., Skals, N. 2004. The odour makes the difference: male moths attracted by sex pheromones ignore the threat by predatory bats. OIKOS. 104: 91-100.

  • El-Sayed, A.M., Gödde, J., and Arn, H. 1999. Sprayer for quantitative application of odor stimuli. Environmental Entomology, 28: 947-953. download PDF file

  • Skals, N., Plepys, D., El-Sayed, A., Löfstedt, C., Surlykke, A. 2003. Quantitative analysis of the effects of sound from an odor sprayer on moth searching behavior. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29: 71-82. download PDF file

  • Judd GJR, DeLury NC, Gardiner MGT. 2005. Examining disruption of pheromone communication in Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis limitata using microencapsulated (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate applied in a laboratory flight tunnel. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 114 (1): 35-45.

  • Coracini, M. D. A., Bengtsson, M., Reckziegel, A., Eiras, A. E., Vilela, E. F., Anderson, P., Francke, W., Löfqvist, J.,and Witzgall, P. 2003. Behavioural effects of minor sex pheromone components in Brazilian apple leafroller Bonagota cranaodes (Lep., Tortricidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 127: 427-434.

  • Plepys, D., Ibarra, F., Löfstedt, C. 2002. Volatiles from flowers of Platanthera bifolia (Orchidaceae) attractive to the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Oikos, 99: 69-74.

  • El-Sayed, A., and Byers, J. 2000. Inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on response of Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to aggregation pheromone demonstrated using piezoelectric sprayer for precision release of semiochemicals. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 26:1795-1809.

  • Hillbur, Y., El-Sayed, A., Bengtsson, M., Löfqvist, J., Biddle, A., Plass, E., Francke, W. 2000. Laboratory and field study on the attraction of male pea midges, Contarinia pisi, to synthetic sex pheromone components. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 26: 1941-1952.


To order the Piezoelectric Micro-Sprayer for your laboratory please contact:

Dr. Ashraf M. El-Sayed
Plant and Food Research
Lincoln, New Zealand
Email: elsayedam@pherobase.com